Archives par mot-clé : Indonésie

The Political Economy of Clientelism: A Comparative Study of Indonesia’s Patronage Democracy

Ward Berenschot, « The Political Economy of Clientelism: A Comparative Study of Indonesia’s Patronage Democracy », 19/03/2018, Comparative Political Studies

Abstract

What kind of economic development curtails clientelistic politics? Most of the literature addressing this relationship focuses narrowly on vote buying, resulting in theories that emphasize the importance of declining poverty rates and a growing middle class. This article employs a combination of ethnographic fieldwork and an expert survey to engage in a first-ever, more comprehensive comparative study of within-country variation of clientelistic politics. I find a pattern that poorly matches these dominant theories: Clientelism is perceived to be less intense in rural, poverty-prone Java, while scores are high in relatively wealthy yet state-dependent provincial capitals. On the basis of these findings, I develop an alternative perspective on the relationship between economic development and clientelism. Emphasizing the importance of societal constraints, I argue that the concentration of control over economic activities fosters clientelism because it stifles the public sphere and inhibits effective scrutiny and disciplining of politico-business elites.

A télécharger sur  :

 

 

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, vol. 53, n° 3 (December 2017)

Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, vol. 53, n° 3 (December 2017)

Survey of recent developments

  • Saving not spending: Indonesia’s domestic demand problem by Raden Pardede and Shirin Zahro

Indonesian Politics in 2017

  • Indonesia’s year of democratic setbacks: towards a new phase of deepening illiberalism? by Vedi R. Hadiz

Other Articles

  • The economic cost of violent conflict: the case of Maluku province in Indonesia by Maheshwar Rao and Yogi Vidyattama
  • Gravity models of interregional migration in Indonesia by Nashrul Wajdi, Sri Moertiningsih Adioetomo and Clara H. Mulder
  • Non-tariff trade regulations in Indonesia: nominal and effective rates of protection by Stephen V. Marks

Book Reviews

  • Peter McCawley, Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of the Asian Development Bank by Heath McMichael
  • Michael T. Rock, Dictators, Democrats, and Development in Southeast Asia: Implications for the Rest by Edmund Malesky
  • Leo Suryadinata, The Rise of China and the Chinese Overseas: A Study of Beijing’s Changing Policy in Southeast Asia and Beyond by Ari Kokko
  • Hal Hill, Jayant Menon (eds), Managing Globalization in the Asian Century: Essays in Honour of Prema-Chandra Athukorala by Sjamsu Rahardja

Voir : http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/cbie20/53/3

 

 

 

Islam and the Limits of the State

R. Michael Feener, David Kloos and Annemarie Samuels (eds), Islam and the Limits of the State : Reconfigurations of Practice, Community and Authority in Contemporary Aceh, Brill, 2015

This book examines the relationship between the state  implementation of Shariʿa and diverse lived realities of everyday Islam in contemporary Aceh, Indonesia. With chapters covering topics ranging from NGOs and diaspora politics to female ulama and punk rockers, the volume opens new perspectives on the complexity of Muslim discourse and practice in a society that has experienced tremendous changes since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. These detailed accounts of and critical reflections on how different groups in Acehnese society negotiate their experiences and understandings of Islam highlight the complexity of the ways in which the state is both a formative and a limited force with regard to religious and social transformation.

A télécharger sur : http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/books/9789004304864

 

Chinese Ways of Being Muslim

Yew Wai Heng, Chinese Ways of Being Muslim : Negotiating Ethnicity and Religiosity in Indonesia, NIAS Press, 2017

Many recent works on Muslim societies have pointed to the development of ‘de-culturalization’ and ‘purification’ of Islamic practices. Instead, by exploring architectural designs, preaching activities, cultural celebrations, social participations and everyday practices, this book describes and analyses the formation and contestation of Chinese Muslim cultural identities in today’s Indonesia. Chinese Muslim leaders strategically promote their unique identities by rearticulating their histories and cultivating ties with Muslims in China. Yet, their intentional mixing of Chineseness and Islam does not reflect all aspects of the multilayered and multifaceted identities of ordinary Chinese Muslims – there is not a single ‘Chinese way of being Muslim’ in Indonesia. Moreover, the assertion of Chinese identity and Islamic religiosity does not necessarily imply racial segregation and religious exclusion, but can act against them.
The study thus helps us to understand better the cultural politics of Muslim and Chinese identities in Indonesia, and gives insights into the possibilities and limitations of ethnic and religious cosmopolitanism in contemporary societies.

Voir : http://www.niaspress.dk/books/chinese-ways-being-muslim

 

Talking Indonesia: Pornography

Talking Indonesia: Pornography with Helen Pausacker, 18/01/2018, Indonesia at Melbourne

The prohibition of pornography has been a controversial area of law in Indonesia, attracting the attention both of Islamic conservatives and activists promoting freedom of expression. Several public figures have been investigated and prosecuted under questionable circumstances, raising concerns that the law is being applied arbitrarily. Recently, the police investigation of Islamic Defenders Front (FPI) leader Rizieq Shihab and his female follower Firza Hussein over a leaked salacious Whatsapp chat has put prohibitions of pornography back in the headlines. The case has gained attention both because FPI has been one of the main groups pushing for pornography prosecutions, and because the investigation has been widely perceived as politically motivated, following Rizieq’s role in the protests against former Jakarta Governor Basuki “Ahok” Tjahaja Purnama.

How does Indonesia regulate pornography, how have its anti-pornography laws been applied, and what determines who gets charged and convicted? How do debates over pornography reflect broader questions of morality and Islam in Indonesian society? In the first Talking Indonesia episode for 2018, Dr Dave McRae explores these issues with Dr Helen Pausacker, deputy director of the Centre for Indonesian Law, Islam and Society (CILIS) at Melbourne Law School.

In 2018, the Talking Indonesia podcast is co-hosted by Dr Dave McRae from the University of Melbourne’s Asia Institute, Dr Jemma Purdey  from Monash University, Dr Charlotte Setijadi from the ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute in Singapore and Dr Dirk Tomsa from La Trobe University.

A écouter sur : http://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/talking-indonesia-pornography/

The Killing Season : A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66

Geoffrey Robinson, A Killing Season : A History of the Indonesian Massacres, 1965-66, Princeton University Press, 2018

The Killing Season explores one of the largest and swiftest, yet least examined, instances of mass killing and incarceration in the twentieth century—the shocking antileftist purge that gripped Indonesia in 1965–66, leaving some five hundred thousand people dead and more than a million others in detention.

An expert in modern Indonesian history, genocide, and human rights, Geoffrey Robinson sets out to account for this violence and to end the troubling silence surrounding it. In doing so, he sheds new light on broad and enduring historical questions. How do we account for instances of systematic mass killing and detention? Why are some of these crimes remembered and punished, while others are forgotten? What are the social and political ramifications of such acts and such silence?

Challenging conventional narratives of the mass violence of 1965–66 as arising spontaneously from religious and social conflicts, Robinson argues convincingly that it was instead the product of a deliberate campaign, led by the Indonesian Army. He also details the critical role played by the United States, Britain, and other major powers in facilitating mass murder and incarceration. Robinson concludes by probing the disturbing long-term consequences of the violence for millions of survivors and Indonesian society as a whole.

Based on a rich body of primary and secondary sources, The Killing Season is the definitive account of a pivotal period in Indonesian history. It also makes a powerful contribution to wider debates about the dynamics and legacies of mass killing, incarceration, and genocide.

Geoffrey B. Robinson is professor of history at the University of California, Los Angeles. His books include The Dark Side of Paradise: Political Violence in Bali and “If You Leave Us Here, We Will Die”: How Genocide Was Stopped in East Timor (Princeton).

Voir : https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11135.html

Colloquium on Genocide and Politicide in Asia

Colloquium on Genocide and Politicide in Asia, Spring 2018, Asian Studies Center and Peace and Justice Studies, Michigan State University

The Asian Studies Center and Peace and Justice Studies present the Genocide and Politicide in Asia Colloquium, which deepens our knowledge of Southeast Asia as a region from transnational perspectives by bringing outstanding scholars from around the world to the Michigan State University campus in spring 2018. Through lectures based on their cutting-edge research, these scholars will illustrate innovative ways to understand history, culture, society, as well as religion in Southeast Asia beyond national and regional boundaries.

A Time to Kill: Indonesia’s Anti-Leftist Purge in Comparative Perspective by Geoffrey Robinson (UCLA) : 09/02/2018

The Political Economy of Mass Murder: Indonesia’s 1965-1966 Killings and the Cold War by Brad Simpson (University of Connecticut) : 13/03/2018

Indonesia 1965-1966: Crimes, Calamities and the Quest for Accountability by Phelim Kine (Human Rights Watch) : 11/04/2018

Incitement to Mass Murder: the 1965-68 Indonesian Genocide by Saskia Wieringa (University of Amsterdam) : 24/04/2018

 

Power Plays in Indonesian Waters

« Power Plays in Indonesian Waters : Transforming Indonesia into a Global Maritime Power is a Complicated Game » by Muhamad Arif, 01/02/2018, Asia and the Pacific Policy Society

The new Maritime Security Agency has only heightened competition in the Navy-dominated governance of Indonesian maritime security, Muhamad Arif writes.

When Indonesian President Joko Widodo signed the presidential regulation on the establishment of the country’s Maritime Security Agency (Badan Keamanan Laut or BAKAMLA) on 8 December 2014, the mood among interested observers was bright. The complicated management of Indonesian maritime security – for which no less than 12 national agencies had responsibility – would finally be settled. The country would soon have a dedicated coastguard to carry out most of the law enforcement functions in Indonesian maritime jurisdictions.

The vision for BAKAMLA was that it would work alongside the Indonesian Navy, which could finally focus on building its much-needed war-fighting capability amidst the increasingly volatile geopolitics of the region. This optimism was justified since the regulation was among the first signed by a president who came to power with a vision to build the geographically strategic country as a prominent maritime power. Or so it was thought.

Three years after the establishment of BAKAMLA, the reality is still a far cry from the original vision. Indonesian maritime security governance is still complicated by well-known problems such as inter-agency competition, overlapping legal frameworks, separate information and intelligence management systems, as well as limited and scattered resources.

In the last couple of years, the number of security violations in Indonesian waters and jurisdictions has decreased substantially. But this outcome is actually a result of sporadic, sub-efficient and, in some cases, conflicting policy directions. Indonesia’s pioneering National Maritime Policy with its attached Action Plan, released by the government in 2016, have not done much to tackle the problems on the ground.

Lire la suite sur : https://www.policyforum.net/power-plays-indonesian-waters/

Muhamad Arif is Researcher at The Habibie Center’s ASEAN Studies Program and Lecturer at the Department of International Relations, University of Indonesia.

Talking Indonesia : Being Chinese and Muslim

 Talking Indonesia : Being Chinese and Muslim with Dr Hew Wai Weng, 01/02/2018, Indonesia at Melbourne

Ethnic Chinese make up less than three percent of Indonesia’s population. Of this group, a tiny minority are Muslim. As such, ethnic Chinese Muslims occupy a unique and significant position where the religious majority intersects with this ethnic minority, which has long assumed a role of economic middleman and been used as political scapegoat. In many ways, Chinese Muslims in Indonesia disturb both their religious and ethnic identity groups. At its best, their position in society serves to highlight the inclusivity and diversity possible within Indonesian nationalism, and at its worst, to expose the undeniable limitations therein.

Who are Indonesia’s ethnic Chinese Muslims? What is their history and situation in contemporary Indonesia? Is there a Chinese way of being Muslim? What can their story tell us about religious tolerance and cultural diversity in Indonesia today?

In this week’s podcast Jemma Purdey explores these issues with Dr Hew Wai Weng, a fellow in the Institute of Malaysian and International Studies, National University of Malaysia (UKM).

A écouter sur : http://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/talking-indonesia-being-chinese-and-muslim/

 

 

A multitude of sins: the revised criminal code

Many of those calling for criminalisation of LGBT Indonesians may not realise they are just as vulnerable under the revised criminal code. Photo by Fahrul Jayadiputra for Antara

« A multitude of sins: the revised criminal code » by Naila Rizqi Zakiah, 30/01/2018, Indonesia at Melbourne

Over the last two weeks, the bitter debate over whether lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) Indonesians should be criminalised has reached new heights of acrimony. The never-ending argument about LGBT rights was revived following the decision of the Constitutional Court to reject the Family Love Alliance (AILA) petition that sought to extend the scope of articles in the Criminal Code (KUHP) on same sex relations and sex outside marriage.

The speaker of the Constitutional People’s Assembly (MPR), Zulkifli Hasan, added fuel to the fire when he made unsubstantiated claims that the People’s Representative Council (DPR) was discussing a bill on LGBT and same-sex marriage  and five political parties were attempting to legalise LGBT behaviour. In reaction, politicians are now expediting efforts to pass long discussed reforms to the KUHP, including provisions that would criminalise same sex relations.

But while the media and the public have focused on the criminalisation of homosexuality, the proposed revisions to the KUHP are much broader, and seek to criminalise all extramarital sex, regardless of gender. The anti-LGBT propaganda has obscured the threat the revisions pose to the privacy and human rights of all Indonesians. There is a real danger that society will support increasing criminalisation based on moral and religious arguments without knowing or thinking about the consequences.

As is stands, the KUHP already criminalises adultery (zina). But the provision on adultery applies to sex between a married person and a person who is not their spouse, and is a complaint offence (delik aduan). This means it is only considered a crime if a party who feels they have suffered from the act reports it to the police. Article 484 of the revised criminal code, however, converts zina where one of the parties is married into a ‘normal offence’ (not based on a complaint or report), meaning that anyone can report cases to police.

Most concerning is that Article 484 extends the definition of zina to all extramarital sex. If a man and woman who are not bound by a “legitimate marriage” have sexual intercourse, they could face up to five years in prison. Article 484(2) explains that this type of adultery between two unmarried people based on complaints of spouses, or any concerned third party. The article doesn’t contain a clear definition of third party, which could be interpreted loosely. Can society claim to be a third party? A neighbour? Or the police? The revised code could pave the way for anyone in society to interfere in their fellow citizens’ affairs, essentially providing the legal basis for the persecution of people who engage in extramarital sex.

Lire la suite sur : http://indonesiaatmelbourne.unimelb.edu.au/a-multitude-of-sins-the-revised-criminal-code/

Religious extremism poses threat to ASEAN’s growth

« Religious extremism poses threat to ASEAN’s growth » by Gwen Robinson and Simon Roughneen, 14/12/2017, Nikkei Asian Review

Aided by social media, hardliners gain mainstream support

The Dec. 2 event marked a year since an estimated half-million people clamored in the rain for the arrest of Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, the then-governor of Jakarta. Since then, Purnama, a Protestant of Chinese descent nicknamed Ahok, lost the gubernatorial election and was sentenced to two years in jail on the same blasphemy charges that brought massive crowds onto Jakarta’s streets late last year.

The episode raised concerns around the world that Indonesia’s relatively tolerant variant of Islam — and its secular democracy — was under attack. And it was a startling display of the strength of Islamist groups in Indonesia, home to the world’s largest Muslim population. Among the organizers were the Islamic Defenders Front, known as FPI, and the Islamic Ummah Forum.

Those groups do not claim affiliation with the al-Qaida-linked militants who killed 202 people in Bali in 2002, nor the estimated 1,150 Indonesians who traveled to Syria and Iraq to fight for the so-called Islamic State. But the government has been sufficiently alarmed to ban the local wing of Hizbut Tahrir, another Islamist movement involved in the anti-Ahok protests — and which hopes to establish a caliphate.

Across Asia, the rise of hard-line religious movements is fueling a macho form of nationalism and creating dangerous new fault lines in communities. Beyond Indonesia with its numerous Islamist groups are Myanmar’s zealous Buddhist organizations, which have stoked anti-Muslim sentiment to deadly effect. Bangladesh has seen the rise of Islamic fundamentalists including Hefazat-e-Islam, while Sri Lanka has Bodu Bala Sena, a radical Sinhalese Buddhist group.

Such groups number in the dozens across Asia — fundamentalist Buddhists, Muslims and Hindus who are adding new fuel on what are sometimes ancient ethnic conflicts. Some boast memberships that run into the hundreds of thousands, powered by zealous social media campaigns, community support programs and effective fundraising operations. The donations, often tiny amounts collected from poor followers, become a source of support for hard-line leaders.

Analysts warn that such ethno-religious chauvinism represents the biggest threat to the economic growth the region has enjoyed in recent years — and to the dream of greater cohesion over trade and economic issues. « Rapid economic growth over the past three decades has raised standards of living across much of Asia, but left marginal areas, like Mindanao in the Philippines and Rakhine State in Myanmar, untouched and therefore comparatively worse off, » said Michael Vatikiotis, Asia director of the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue. « It is perhaps no coincidence that these areas are afflicted by violent conflict. »

Lire la suite sur : https://asia.nikkei.com/magazine/20171214/On-the-Cover/Religious-extremism-poses-threat-to-ASEAN-s-growth

 

Piety, Celebrity, Sociality: A Forum on Islam and Social Media in Southeast Asia

Piety, Celebrity, Sociality: A Forum on Islam and Social Media in Southeast Asia 
Edited by Martin Slama and Carla Jones

Nov 08, 2017

En libre accès sur le site de l’American Ethnological Society

Many of the essays in this collection were initially presented at the workshop « Social Media and Islamic Practice in Southeast Asia, » which took place in April 2016, in Vienna, Austria. The workshop was an initiative of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) project « Islamic (Inter)Faces of the Internet: Emerging Socialities and Forms of Piety in Indonesia, » which is directed by Martin Slama at the Institute for Social Anthropology, Austrian Academy of Sciences.

Table of contents

  • Introduction : Piety, Celebrity, Sociality by Carla Jones (University of Colorado Boulder) and Martin Slama (Institute for Social Anthropology at the Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  • Sufi Sociality in Social Media by Ismail Fajrie Alatas (New York University)
  • The Revival of Riya’: Displaying Muslim Piety Online in Indonesia by Fatimah Husein (State Islamic University Yogyakarta)
  • Circulating Modesty: The Gendered Afterlives of Networked Images by Carla Jones (University of Colorado Boulder)
  • The Digital Sound of Southeast Asian Islam by Bart Barendregt (Leiden University)
  • Prince of Heaven: Blogging the Concerns of Great Muslimah by Dayana Lengauer (Institute for Social Anthropology at the Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  • Heart to Heart on Social Media: Affective Aspects of Islamic Practice by Martin Slama (Institute for Social Anthropology at the Austrian Academy of Sciences)
  • Capital Subjects: Debating Islamic Finance, Online and Off by Daromir Rudnyckyj (University of Victoria)
  • Paths to Celebrity Status: The Significance of Social Media for Islamic Preachers from South Sulawesi by Wahyuddin Halim (State Islamic University Makassar)
  • The Allure of “One Day One Juz” by Eva Nisa (Victoria University of Wellington)
  • Sincerity and Scandal: The Cultural Politics of “Fake Piety » in Indonesia by James B. Hoesterey (Emory University)
  • Understanding Piety and Anger in Indonesia’s 2016 Islamic Mass Rallies by Saskia Schäfer (Freie Universität Berlin)
  • Tweeting Religion in Indonesia: When Political Arenas Go Viral by John Postill (Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology University) and Leonard Chrysostomos Epafras (Indonesian Consortium for Religious Studies)

A télécharger sur :  http://americanethnologist.org/features/collections/piety-celebrity-sociality

Adat Aceh: royal Malay statecraft in the 17th century

Adat Aceh: royal Malay statecraft in the 17th century by Annabel Gallop, 13/11/2017, Asian and African Studies blog

When I am asked which is the most important Malay manuscript in the British Library, there is no simple answer. Should I cite the two copies we hold of the Sejarah Melayu, ‘Malay Annals’(Or 14734 and Or 16214), recounting the founding of the 15th-century kingdom of Melaka, and arguably the single most famous Malay text? Or the oldest known manuscript of the earliest historical chronicle in Malay, the Hikayat Raja Pasai, ‘Chronicle of the Kings of Pasai’ (Or 14350)? Or one of the finest illuminated Malay manuscripts known, a copy of the Taj al-Salatin, ‘The Crown of Kings’, written in Penang in 1824 (Or 13295)? Unmissable from this list of the great and the good of Malay writing is the Adat Aceh, ‘The Statecraft of Aceh’ (MSS Malay B.11), a compendium of court customs, regulations and practice from the greatest Muslim sultanate in Southeast Asia in the 17th century.

Lire la suite sur : http://blogs.bl.uk/asian-and-african/2017/11/adat-aceh-royal-malay-statecraft-in-the-17th-century.html

Treasures from the the 17th and 18th VOC archive

Treasures from the the 17th and 18th VOC archive, Sejarah Nusantara, Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia

The paper archives created by the Dutch East India Company (VOC, 1602-1799) and dealing with its commercial operations in Asian waters are preserved in the national archives of Indonesia, the Netherlands, Sri Lanka, South Africa and India. In particular, the archives in Jakarta contain thousands of documents originating from Asian persons, including many local rulers from around the Indonesian archipelago. The most voluminous collections spanning 2,000 metres are in the Arsip Nasional Republik Indonesia (ANRI). On 9 March 2004, the archives of the VOC were included in the UNESCO Memory of the World Register.

The 2.000 metres of archives in ANRI can be roughly divided into two sections:
1) The archives created in and formerly kept at Batavia Castle, the former headquarters of the VOC in Asia. This is the archive of the Supreme Government (the Governor-General and the ordinary Councillors of Dutch Asia).
2) The archives of local private and public institutions in Batavia.

For this digitalization and public access project, a selection had to be made. The Daily Journals of Batavia Castle which can be found in the archives of the Supreme Government were digitalized and published first. This series reflects the principle concerns of the Supreme Government.  Prominent here were internal Company affairs in matters as diverse as the general management of trade, personnel and financial affairs, shipping and logistics. The Supreme Government also dealt with all political and diplomatic affairs, the administration of justice and correspondence with other VOC factories in Asia as well as the VOC Chambers and their Governing Board, theso-called Gentlemen Seventeen (Heren XVII) or Directors of the VOC  in the Dutch Republic. The Daily Journals were created to maintain an ongoing overview of such activities.

During the course of the eighteenth century, the Resolution Books of the Supreme Government became more and more important and voluminous while the registration of correspondence in the Daily Journals gradually declined. In particular, the handling of all matters to do with the regional establishments of the Company were included in the General Resolution Books. In 1743, such matters were recorded in a separate yearbook, giving birth to a separate series: the General (Foreign) Affairs Books (Net-Generale Besogneboeken).

Another, hitherto unresearched and historically unique series are the Appendices to the General Resolution Books. These total together some 742 volumes numbering some 550,000 folio pages. This series contain a variety of documents which may gradually become accessible via a special database. The first document descriptions for this database were started in 2013 by ANRI’s Content Team (see organisation).

Liste des archives consultables moyennant une inscription sur le site:

  • General Resolutions of Batavia Castle 1613-1810
  • Realia 1610-1808
  • Appendices to General Resolutions 1686-1811
  • The Placards of Batavia Castle 1602-1808
  • Daily Journals of Batavia Castle 1624-1806
  • Marginalia to the Daily Journals 1659-1807
  • Diplomatic Letters 1625-1812
  • Corpus Diplomaticum 1595-1799

Plus d’informations sur : https://sejarah-nusantara.anri.go.id/archive/

 

Becoming Better Muslims

David Kloos, Becoming Better Muslims : Religious Authority and Ethical Improvement in Aceh, Indonesia, Princeton University Press, 2017

How do ordinary Muslims deal with and influence the increasingly pervasive Islamic norms set by institutions of the state and religion? Becoming Better Muslims offers an innovative account of the dynamic interactions between individual Muslims, religious authorities, and the state in Aceh, Indonesia. Relying on extensive historical and ethnographic research, David Kloos offers a detailed analysis of religious life in Aceh and an investigation into today’s personal processes of ethical formation.

Aceh is known for its history of rebellion and its recent implementation of Islamic law. Debunking the stereotypical image of the Acehnese as inherently pious or fanatical, Kloos shows how Acehnese Muslims reflect consciously on their faith and often frame their religious lives in terms of gradual ethical improvement. Revealing that most Muslims view their lives through the prism of uncertainty, doubt, and imperfection, he argues that these senses of failure contribute strongly to how individuals try to become better Muslims. He also demonstrates that while religious authorities have encroached on believers and local communities, constraining them in their beliefs and practices, the same process has enabled ordinary Muslims to reflect on moral choices and dilemmas, and to shape the ways religious norms are enforced.

Arguing that Islamic norms are carried out through daily negotiations and contestations rather than blind conformity, Becoming Better Muslims examines how ordinary people develop and exercise their religious agency.

Plus d’informations sur : https://press.princeton.edu/titles/11204.html