Archives par mot-clé : Etats-Unis

U.S. Embassy Tracked Indonesia Mass Murder 1965

General Suharto in the days after the September 30th Movement

Newly Declassified U.S. Embassy Jakarta Files Detail Army Killings, U.S. support for Quashing Leftist Labor Movemen, Briefing Book # 607, edited by Brad Simpson, National Security Archive, The George Washington University

Washington, D.C., October 17, 2017 – The U.S. government had detailed knowledge that the Indonesian Army was conducting a campaign of mass murder against the country’s Communist Party (PKI) starting in 1965, according to newly declassified documents posted today by the National Security Archive at The George Washington University.  The new materials further show that diplomats in the Jakarta Embassy kept a record of which PKI leaders were being executed, and that U.S. officials actively supported Indonesian Army efforts to destroy the country’s left-leaning labor movement.

The 39 documents made available today come from a collection of nearly 30,000 pages of files constituting much of the daily record of the U.S. Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1964-1968. The collection, much of it formerly classified, was processed by the National Declassification Center in response to growing public interest in the remaining U.S. documents concerning the mass killings of 1965-1966.  American and Indonesian human rights and freedom of information activists, filmmakers, as well as a group of U.S. Senators led by Tom Udall (D-NM), had called for the materials to be made public.

The documents concern one of the most important and turbulent chapters in Indonesian history and U.S.-Indonesian relations, which witnessed the gradual collapse of ties between Jakarta and Washington, a low-level war with Britain over the formation of Malaysia, rising tension between the Indonesian Army and the Indonesian Communist Party, the growing radicalization of Indonesian President Sukarno, and the expansion of U.S. covert operations aimed at provoking a clash between the Army and PKI. These tensions erupted in the aftermath of an attempted purge of the Army by the September 30th Movement – a group of military officers with the collaboration of a handful of PKI leaders.  After crushing the Movement, which had kidnapped and killed six high-ranking Army generals, the Indonesian Army and its paramilitary allies launched a campaign of annihilation against the PKI and its affiliated organizations, killing up to 500,000 alleged PKI supporters between October 1965 and March 1966, imprisoning up to a million more, and eventually ousting Sukarno and replacing him with General Suharto, who ruled Indonesia for the next 32 years before he himself was overthrown in May 1998.

In an unprecedented collaboration, the National Security Archive worked with the National Declassification Center (NDC) to make the entirety of this collection available to the public by scanning and digitizing the collection, which will be incorporated into the National Archives and Records Administration’s (NARA) digital finding aids. When completed, scholars, journalists, and researchers will be able to search the documents by date, keyword, or name, providing unparalleled access, in particular for the Indonesian public, to a unique collection of records concerning one of the most important periods of Indonesian history.

Of the 30,000 pages processed by the NDC, several hundred documents remain classified and are undergoing further review before their scheduled release in early 2018. While some of the documents in this collection were declassified and deposited at NARA or the Lyndon Johnson Presidential Library in the late 1990s, many thousands of pages are being made available for the first time in more than 50 years.

Le texte des documents déclassifiés et leurs fac-similés sont sur la page ainsi que des liens, des ouvrages et une liste d’articles de presse : http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/indonesia/2017-10-15/indonesia-mass-murder-1965-us-embassy-files

Payut Ngaokrachang: cartoons for the United States Information Service

Payut Ngaokrachang: cartoons for USIS, Part 1, 24/01/2017, propagandainsoutheastasia

Payut Ngaokrachang was a Thai cartoonist who worked for most of his career with the United States Information Service (USIS). He was originally from a rural background, born in Wako, in the province of Prachuap Khiri Khan. In 1955 Payut created his first animated short film, Haed Mahasajan [The Miracle Incident] in which a traffic policeman causes a pile up due to some questionable dancing on the job. According to Jonathan Clements, Payut was subsequently spotted by USIS who awarded him roughly $400 and the opportunity to spend 6 months either at the Walt Disney Studios in California or Toei in Japan. He chose the later, meaning he was in many ways there at the very start of the Japanese anime industry. His time there resulted in his first (and as it happens last) propaganda film, completed in 1957.

Hanuman in Danger

Hanuman Phachoen Phai [Hanuman in danger], takes its principal character from the Ramayana, a classic Hindu epic that is also the basis for the classic Thai text the Ramakien. Hanuman, who is the God-King of the apes, was one of major characters who fought with Rama [Phra Ram] against the Devil King Ravana [Totsapak], and is therefore highly revered. In the propaganda film, Hanuman is depicted with a white face, and is based in the countryside. The film starts with him at home as his sons watch the television. They are watching a dancing competition, commenting on the prettiness of female dancer, when her partner the screen morphs from a handsome young man into a brutal looking dictator, who begins to spout what is supposed to be Communist ideology. He instructs the audience that they no longer need to respect their mothers, fathers, religion or King Rama [Phra Ram].

Lire la suite sur : https://propagandainsoutheastasia.wordpress.com/