Archives par mot-clé : Birmanie/Myanmar

Rohingya identity and the limits to history

Rohingya identity and the limits to history by Jonathan Saha, 17/09/2017, New Mandala

Public discussions around Rohingya people currently fleeing violence in Rakhine state, Myanmar, have often involved arguments about history. While critical historical analysis is useful in offering insights into conflicts, History—if treated as a single, knowable past—is not. This is especially true when dealing with ethnicity. Whatever the past was, no amount of historical research can justify the current violence against Rohingya people.

The debate around Rohingya ethnicity lacks awareness of wider historiography (the history of historical research). On the one side, those denying that this is ethnic cleansing argue that there is no such thing as a Rohingya ethnic group. It is claimed that these people are actually Bengali Muslim migrants. The writings of historians such as Jacques Lieder have been used, by some, to support this position. He argues that the use of the term Rohingya to connote this Muslim population, although noted by eighteenth-century European travelers, is a modern one. For him, Rohingya is primarily a political identity. On the other side, Rohingya activists have resisted this characterisation. They have countered that there is evidence of Muslims living in the Rakhine region for centuries, and that these groups have periodically been called Rohingya.

Writing in The Diplomat last year, one commentator attempted to disentangle these debates by arguing that “the Rohingya are not an ethnic, but rather a political construction. [emphasis in original]”. This is wrong. Not only wrong in the sense of it being inaccurate, but wrong in two other ways: 1) in that it relies on a false division between the categories “political” and “ethnic”, and then treats the two as if they are mutually exclusive; and 2) in that it assumes that we can definitively know people’s ethnic identification in the past.

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/rohingya-limits-history/

Putting Myanmar’s “Buddhist Extremism” in an International Context

Putting Myanmar’s “Buddhist Extremism” in an International Context by Aye Thein, 01/09/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

Aye Thein argues that the international influences on “Buddhist extremism” have been overlooked.

This article further develops an idea I had briefly discussed in an earlier piece written for New Mandala in February 2017. A recent phenomenon in Myanmar, which has been called by different names by commentators depending on their preference, has put the country in the international spotlight. It has been characterised, among others terms, as “Buddhist nationalist”, “ultra-nationalist”, “militant Buddhist” and “Buddhist extremist”, the latter being used in the title of this article. MaBaTha or the Organisation for the Protection of Race and Religion, being the largest of the groups described by these various terms, has triggered a good deal of scholarly and journalistic attention.

What is problematic with the articles such as the ones using the terms quoted above is that most of them overemphasise the role of these groups as promoters of Islamophobia. In order to advance our understanding of this worrying trend, I will make the case here that more attention needs to be given to another role Buddhist nationalist groups play, which has hitherto been glossed over or commented on only in passing: that is, that they are in fact voracious consumers, albeit uncritical and selective, of global media coverage on Islam. This is where the international factor comes in.

Based on my reading of recent literature of the Buddhist nationalists in the Burmese language, I have observed at least three ways in which the international factor feeds into Islamophobia, as consumed and purveyed by these groups in Myanmar.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/09/01/putting-myanmars-buddhist-extremism-in-an-international-context/

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part II)

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part II) by Matthew J. Walton, 07/09/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

One of the holy grails of democratic studies is the idea of transformative citizenship. Many have theorized about how democracy could be transformative or how engaged citizenship could transform relationships between citizens and government, but it is difficult to really track this concept.

A national political dialogue process made up of biannual 21st Century Panglong Conferences, themselves consisting of 700 elite representatives mostly drawn from a few centrally important institutions, reflects multiple views on citizenship, none of them transformative in empowering or ennobling ways. It further privileges direct political participation and decision-making for a select few, while imposing a set of passive citizenship practices on the vast majority of the population. A meaningful voice in political decision-making (particularly about their own affairs) is the central complaint of almost every interest group in Myanmar, from ethnic armed groups to women’s organisations to opposition parties and student unions. Yet almost every step of the process leading to the current national political dialogue framework (from initial negotiations between a small government team and ethnic armed group leaders through to the drafting of the final framework by a nine member, all male group behind closed doors) has reinforced the notion that for most, citizenship is primarily a non-participatory notion, merely the act of being represented. And this type of citizenship cannot be transformative in the sense of turning people into more active, knowledgeable, inter-connected, and empathetic members of a political community.

What types of citizen engagement might be potentially transformative? A 2011 study looked at the presumed benefits of citizen participation in democratic governance and found that the positive effects of expanded participation are noticeable primarily to those actually taking part, which should not be surprising. The study specified these benefits as coming in the form of “knowledge, skills, and [democratic] virtues” (Michels 2011, 290). This insight helps to distinguish between the effects of different types of “democratic innovations,” for example referendums and deliberative forums. While referendums seem to result in more direct policy influence, deliberative forums would contribute more to individual citizen development, not to mention the embeddedness that seems to be so critical in the citizen-political community relationship.

Lire la suite : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/09/07/political-communication-and-transformative-citizenship-in-myanmar-part-ii/

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part I)

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part I) by Matthew J. Walton, 06/09/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

Citizenship is undoubtedly one of the more contentious issues in Myanmar today. But with so much focus on the boundaries of national inclusion, discussions usually ignore a key aspect of citizenship: its practice. The following two posts are excerpted from a chapter that will appear in an upcoming volume, Citizenship in Myanmar: ways of being in and from Burma, edited by Ashley South and Marie Lall (ISEAS Press and Chiang Mai University Press, 2018).

The practice of citizenship includes various perspectives on what citizenship entails (the different rights and responsibilities), the roles of state and civil society groups in fostering citizenship, and expectations of citizen participation (as well as expectations of the state in facilitating that participation). A discussion of the practice of citizenship should also include attention to the many “skills” of citizenship that go beyond basic rights and responsibilities. Especially important—but often unaddressed—are the particular citizenship skills that need to be cultivated by government officials.

Developing a broader understanding of a diverse range of citizenship skills and practices is particularly necessary in the context of Myanmar’s rapid political change. Since at least the 2008 constitutional referendum, the country’s citizens have been expected to participate in politics in a variety of ways that were not only previously unavailable to them, they were actively denied by military-led governments. The result is a situation in which the meaning and content of citizenship is either limited among citizens or expressed in ways that do not necessarily accord with centralized notions of citizenship and participation in Myanmar or with international norms.

In these two posts, I consider the practice of citizenship primarily in relation to the national political dialogue process, now officially reconfigured as the 21st Century Panglong Conference, arguably the forum that (in some form or another) will shape Myanmar’s political future. This is a useful starting point for critical analysis, especially because many of the crucial aspects of citizenship practice that I discuss are completely ignored in the current political dialogue process.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/09/06/political-communication-and-transformative-citizenship-in-myanmar-part-i/

Myanmar’s Peace Process (Part III)

« Myanmar’s Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Borderland Economies, Service Delivery, and other Post-Panglong Concerns » (Part III) by Bobby Anderson, 25/08/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

DDR processes are only one aspect of the state building process that will need to occur in EAO areas; durable peace will only arrive when communities in EAO areas discern value in citizenship, and so a distrusted state must deliver health, education, and other services, and offer impartial protections, including the provision of land tenure. Education is particularly important: successful reintegration and enhanced livelihood security in EAO areas are fundamentally a question of human resources, the foundation of which is public schools. Across Myanmar, the educational system is in need of repair, and this is doubly so in many EAO areas. Education is supposed to create citizens as well as workers literate in a common language. A lack of vocational and technical training centers, not only in areas accessible to EAO populations, but in Myanmar as a whole, is also an urgent issue. These matters warrant much greater exploration— exploration that is beyond the scope of this analysis, however.  Afghanistan amply demonstrates how both DDR and alternative livelihood programs fail when they are standalone programs occurring in areas lacking the administrative, service-oriented, and coercive presence of the state. 

The process of state building in insurgent areas will occur through an inflow of Bamar civil servants into these areas to deliver services, and this will also lead to resentment. As a rule of thumb, many EAO host populations will not possess the requisite human resource capacity to completely staff education, health, and general administrative posts. Business and capital, some of it exploitative, will follow. Migrants historically dominate local markets in newly colonized areas; Chinese already play this role in Kachin, while Naga markets in Northeast India are dominated by Marwaris and Biharis, and Han Chinese in Tibet. This can also cynically play into conflict resolution efforts, if it gives struggling ex-EAOs entities to levy extra legal taxes on.

Myanmar’s ethnic minorities—and for that matter, China’s Tibetans, Indonesia’s highland Papuans, Thailand’s hill tribes, and others—know that uncontrolled in-migration will reduce them to minorities, with their cultures and lands subsumed by newcomers. James C Scott’s engulfment— defined as the settlement of loyal (read: docile) populations with an existing “national” identity in areas where such identity was lacking among indigenous peoples— may occur as a part of an unstated but overarching government strategy to dilute the concentration of peoples with separatist tendencies in sensitive areas.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/08/25/myanmars-peace-process-disarmament-demobilization-and-reintegration-borderland-economies-service-delivery-and-other-post-panglong-concerns-part-iii/

Myanmar’s Peace Process (Part II)

« Myanmar’s Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Borderland Economies, Service Delivery, and other Post-Panglong Concerns » (Part II) by Bobby Anderson, 24/08/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

Disarmament:

The government of Myanmar possesses the capacity to undertake disarmament and demobilization processes. But what it is still theoretically building with EAOs is the trust necessary to engage in such a process. Despite this, the government is unlikely to go down the well-trod path many other states have travelled via the subcontracting of Disarmament and Demobilization processes to the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations (DPKO) and other UN agencies that have expertise in such work. China’s acquiescence, however, matters here: elements of One Belt, One Road require the stability in Myanmar’s border with Yunnan, and this has been amply demonstrated by the involvement of special envoy Sun Guoxiang in the latest Panglong Meeting. It is unlikely that China would involve itself in disarmament and demobilization directly; a process under the auspices, not of the EU or DPKO, but of ASEAN, may be more palatable for them.

The disarmament aspect of DDR is a technically easy, time-bound process that only requires the will of each entity to engage with the other, under third party facilitation. This may involve insurgent entry into cantonments and dual-key weapons storage after a given peace process reaches a certain pre-defined milestone. The weapons initially handed over will likely be constituted in large part by “museum pieces”, while better functioning weaponry is held back in case Panglong 21 breaks down, or for sale. Implicit in such a process is the building up of state police forces in insurgent areas— often made up of ex-insurgents under state command— in a structure resembling BGFs, but more lightly armed.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/08/24/myanmars-peace-process-disarmament-demobilization-and-reintegration-borderland-economies-service-delivery-and-other-post-panglong-concerns-part-ii/

Myanmar’s Peace Process (Part I)

« Myanmar’s Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Borderland Economies, Service Delivery, and other Post-Panglong Concerns » (Part I) by Bobby Anderson, 23/08/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

Myanmar’s history is defined by violence between a relatively stable lowland Bamar core and a fragile non-Bamar highland periphery. The country hosts numerous ethnic armed organizations (EAOs) including the world’s longest-running separatist insurgency. Since independence in 1948, Myanmar has never met Weber’s minimalist definition of a state as the holder of the monopoly of the use of physical force within a given territory. Beginning from a low point in 1948, when Karen separatists were assembled on the outskirts of Rangoon, Myanmar’s army or Tatmadaw grew over the years into a formidable military force as it asserted central control over all lowland areas, pushing insurgents year-by-year into more inhospitable and state-resistant terrain.

The country’s “Panglong 21” Peace Process, which seeks to end 70 years of insurgency in the country’s borderlands, has been subjected to significant criticism, not least from the participants themselves. Of the 17 EAOs who have signed the National Ceasefire Agreement (NCA), in July 2017, eight formed a “Peace Process Steering Team” to evaluate the current NCA, referring to it as a “deviation from the path they had envisioned.” Other EAOs excluded from signing by the Tatmadaw, and still others who declined to participate, have come together under a bloc, the Federal Political Negotiation and Consultative Committee (FPNCC), led by the most powerful EAO in the country, the United Wa State Party, but the government refuses to negotiate with them collectively. A previous bloc, the United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC), has, for all intents and purposes, fallen apart. Apparent from the process is the disconnect between the EAOs and the Tatmadaw in regard to sequencing: for example, EAOs want a political dialogue about the parameters of a federal state followed by security sector and constitutional reform, after which disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants (DDR) shall occur. Conversely, the Tatmadaw want DDR immediately, pressing for a disarmament prior to political negotiations. Each side has its own understanding of federalism that is, so far, incompatible with the other.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/08/23/myanmars-peace-process-disarmament-demobilization-and-reintegration-borderland-economies-service-delivery-and-other-post-panglong-concerns-part-i/

 

Call for Submissions: Tea Circle’s Forum on the 10th anniversary of the “Saffron Revolution”

 Call for Submissions: Tea Circle’s Forum on the 10th anniversary of the « Saffron Revolution”, 21/08/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

September 2017 will mark the 10th anniversary of the so-called “Saffron Revolution.” Tens of thousands of monks and nuns, eventually joined by laypeople, marched in cities across the country, continuing a protest against military rule and government policies that was started by lay activists, but taken up by the religious community. After several days of growing anticipation and rapidly expanding global media coverage, the marches were brought to a halt by a violent crackdown from security forces, followed by raids and increased surveillance of monasteries.

People inside and outside of Myanmar were captivated by the images of monks chanting and marching in protest, although misperceptions of the event’s dynamics and the motivations of participants were also widespread, especially among outside observers. Even its evocative title is contested, both for the fact that Burmese monks’ robes are not saffron-coloured and because some are reluctant to associate the term “revolution” with what was seen by some as a form of spiritual resistance. While a wide consensus exists that this was an important moment in the recent political and social life of Myanmar—and to some extent maybe even in its religious life—there are a great variety of opinions over the event’s origins, its history, its role in the change the country has experienced since then and its general significance.

Tea Circle would like to take the opportunity offered by this anniversary to reflect on the “Saffron Revolution,” and to offer a space for considering and debating this variety of perspectives. We invite personal recollections, opinion pieces, critical analyses, or any other type of writing. Multi-media submissions are also welcome. Tea Circle is open not only to academic analysis but to anyone who wishes to share his/her views in reflecting on this important event in Myanmar’s recent history.

Submissions can be submitted any time and should be sent by email to editor@teacircleoxford.com with the subject line “Saffron Revolution.” The text of the submission should be attached in a word document with minimal formatting (although hyperlinks are welcome). A short biography (under 100 words) should be included in the document, as well as a proposed title for the piece and a related image, if possible. We will make every effort to provide prompt feedback on submissions and the forum will run for at least two months, allowing readers to interact with previous posts.

Voir : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/08/21/call-for-submissions-tea-circles-forum-on-the-10th-anniversary-of-the-saffron-revolution/

Asian Highlands Perspectives, vol. 48 (2017)

Asian Highlands Perspectives, vol. 48 (2017)

Asian Highlands Perspectives is pleased to announce the publication of Volume 48 : Great Lords of the Sky: Burma’s Shan Aristocracy by Sao Sanda Simms. Written from a Tai/Shan perspective, the intricate and often unsettled realities that existed in the Shan States from early times up to the military coup in 1962 are described in a comprehensive overview of the stresses and strains that the Shan princes endured from early periods of monarchs and wars, under British rule and Japanese occupation, and Independence and Bamar military regime. Part One covers chronological events relating them to the rulers, the antagonists, and the people and the continuing conflict in the Shan State. Part Two deals with the 34 Tai/Shan rulers, describing their histories, lives, and work. Included are photographs and family trees of the princes, revealing a span of Shan history, before being lost in the mists of time. The past is explained in order that the present political situations may be understood and resolved amicably between the Bamar government, the Tatmadaw, and the ethnic nationalities.

Télécharger la version PDF sur : https://tibetanplateau.wikischolars.columbia.edu/file/view/AHP48GreatLordsOfTheSkyFinal24July2017reduced.pdf/

Intersections of the Literary & Artistic Worlds in Myanmar & the Region in the 20th Century

Intersections of the Literary & Artistic Worlds in Myanmar & the Region in the 20th Century, 17/11/2017, Singapore

This proposed one-day symposium corresponds to the last leg of the NTU-funded project on AungSoeillustrations.org, a database of illustrations by Myanmar’s trailblazer of modern art, Bagyi Aung Soe (1923–1990).

The examination of Aung Soe’s dated illustrations, which are the only means to tracing his artistic evolution between 1948 and 1990, led to the awareness of the crucial role played by illustration in the development, dissemination and documentation of 20th-century art in Myanmar. With neither governmental support nor a developed art market, illustration in printed matter was the artist’s mobile showcase and the platform for artistic experimentations. Whether in Mandalay or Yangon, artists both mainstream and avantgarde illustrated: book covers, magazine covers, album covers, posters, illustrations and vignettes inside publications, etc.

The rise of Aung Soe in the years following the country’s political independence is inextricably linked to the support of Myanmar’s foremost literary figures: Dagon Taya (1919–2013) who initiated him to Western modernism; Min Thu Wun (1909–2004) and Zawgyi (1908–1990) who nominated him for the Indian government scholarship to study art at Visva-Bharati University founded by Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941) in Santiniketan,  India, thereby mandating him with the revival of traditional Burmese art. Indeed, as in many countries in the region, Burmese writers and poets were ahead of the artists in addressing the urgency and challenges of a localised artistic modernity. Today, artists, writers, poets, publishers and filmmakers continue to work closely together in Myanmar; the divide between the literary and artistic worlds is fallacious. Specialisation is not necessarily a condition of artistic excellence in this part of the world, for an artist writes as well as publishes, and a poet paints as well as edits: the worlds of artistic creation, literature and filmmaking are symbiotic.

This symposium seeks to:

  • investigate the hitherto overlooked medium and agency of illustration in the articulation of “art” in Myanmar and the region;
  • discern geneses of “art” in Myanmar and the region from the perspective of the literary world;
  • explore ways of thinking and writing about “art” beyond that yoked to the Euramerican experience and agenda;
  • reflect on common threads and divergences in the way(s) in which modern art emerged in tandem with developments in the literary world in Myanmar and the region.

Intersections of the Literary & Artistic Worlds in Myanmar & the Region in the 20th century welcomes papers engaging with any of these four above-listed tropes. Areas of interest include but are not restricted to:

  • Illustration as a site for articulating artistic modernities in Myanmar and the region
  • Illustration as a means of making sense of constructs and paradigms of “art” in Myanmar and the region
  • Illustration as image, body and medium in “art” in Myanmar and the region
  • Writings on art and their role(s) in shaping artistic practice, production and reception in Myanmar and the region
  • Literature and the writer in art; art and the artist in literature in Myanmar and the region
  • Narratives of collaboration, dialogue, debate or/and contention between writers, artists, poets, filmmakers, editors, publishers, critics, etc. in Myanmar and the region
  • Ecosystems of writers, artists, poets, filmmakers, editors, publishers, critics, etc. in Myanmar and the region

Voir : http://ntuprojects.com/portfolio/aung-soe/symposium/

The tamarind is always sour

Keane Shum, « The tamarind is always sour » in Granta 138 : Journeys, Essays and Memoir

My job is to follow the movements of refugees across Southeast Asia so that we know where and how they might seek asylum, and what kind of needs they will have when they do. For the last few years, by far the largest group of refugees moving across Southeast Asia have been the Rohingya, an ethnic minority from Myanmar. The Rohingya are Muslims who have lived for generations in the western Myanmar state of Rakhine, but are considered by virtually all other Myanmarese – most of whom are Buddhists – to be interlopers from neighbouring Bangladesh.

By law, the more than one million Rohingya in Myanmar are almost all excluded from Myanmar citizenship, making them the largest stateless group in the world. They are cut off from livelihoods, medical care and schools. Systematic discrimination, punctuated by occasional eruptions of violent conflict, has pushed hundreds of thousands of Rohingya to seek refuge across a vast expanse stretching from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan to Bangladesh and Malaysia. There are anywhere between two to three million Rohingya in the world, and the large majority of them do not exist on paper.

When I first started talking to Rohingya refugees in 2014, most of them were fleeing Myanmar by boat because they are generally prohibited by local authorities from crossing by road into even the next town. Every month, thousands of Rohingya were committing $2,000 a head to a multinational network of Myanmarese, Bangladeshi, Thai and Malaysian people smugglers whom they entrusted to bring them across the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea to Malaysia. My team and I interviewed hundreds of Rohingya who made this journey, and their testimonies were remarkably consistent and consistently terrifying. The only more inhumane crossing I have ever heard or read about is the Middle Passage, the part of the slave journey across the Atlantic that killed millions of Africans between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Lire la suite sur : https://granta.com/tamarind-always-sour/

The Karen in 2017: Resilience, Aspirations and Politics

The Karen in 2017: Resilience, Aspirations and Politics, 18/07/2017, Tea Circle Oxford

On Thursday, 15th June researchers and practitioners working with Karen communities within the context of the Myanmar’s ongoing democratic transition joined together for a special one-day workshop, ‘The Karen in 2017: Resilience, Aspirations and Politics’, convened by the Programme on Modern Burmese Studies (MBS) at St Antony’s College.

In a unique collaboration between research fellows and students from the University of Oxford and the Australian National University’s Myanmar Research Centre, the event brought together students, academics and commentators with development practitioners and activists working in a range of fields and interventions in Karen State, Karen refugee and diaspora communities.

As Dr Matthew Walton, MBS Director, made clear in his opening address, the workshop set out to take stock of the promise and pace of substantive change and progress for these communities since the signing of a ceasefire between the Karen National Union (KNU) and the Myanmar government in January 2012, and the long-awaited accession of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy government in March 2016.

Participants were specifically asked to reflect on the adaptive strategies, politics and aspirations of ordinary Karen people and ethnic leaders navigating Myanmar’s often uneven and uncertain transition to peace and democracy over recent years. The workshop was structured around four main themes and panels: (1) Aspirations, Education and Health; (2) Livelihoods and Social Protection; (3) Migration, Conflict and the Borderland; a plenary session considered (4) the Future of Karen in Myanmar/Burma and the Diaspora.

Voir : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/07/18/the-karen-in-2017-resilience-aspirations-and-politics-part-1/

 

 

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: Research among the Karen, Past and Present [Part 2]

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: « Research among the Karen, Past and Present » [Part 2]

Pia Jolliffe interviews anthropologist Mikael Gravers.

This week on Tea Circle, we’re pleased to feature a two-part interview with anthropologist Mikael Gravers, an expert on nationalism, ethnic conflict, and peace and reconciliation, with extensive experience working among Karen communities in Thailand and Myanmar. He is the author of a number of books on Burma/Myanmar, including Burma/Myanmar— Where Now?, Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, and Nationalism as Political Paranoia in Burma. He is also a researcher on the project “Everyday Justice and Security in the Myanmar Transition”.

Lire l’article sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/07/06/a-conversation-with-mikael-gravers-research-among-the-karen-past-and-present-part-2/

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: Research among the Karen, Past and Present [Part 1]

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: « Research among the Karen, Past and Present » [Part 1]

Pia Jolliffe interviews anthropologist Mikael Gravers.

This week on Tea Circle, we’re pleased to feature a two-part interview with anthropologist Mikael Gravers, an expert on nationalism, ethnic conflict, and peace and reconciliation, with extensive experience working among Karen communities in Thailand and Myanmar. He is the author of a number of books on Burma/Myanmar, including Burma/Myanmar— Where Now?, Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, and Nationalism as Political Paranoia in Burma. He is also a researcher on the project “Everyday Justice and Security in the Myanmar Transition”.

Lire https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/07/05/a-conversation-with-mikael-gravers-research-among-the-karen-past-and-present-part-1/

 

Myanmar contemporary art 1

Launch: Myanmar Contemporary Art 1

Now available for purchase at Myanmart! After 2 years of hard work and many brilliant collaborators and donors, the translation, redesign and publication of Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 (MCA1) is complete! Originally published in Burmese language in 2009 under censorship, the new edition was raised through crowdfunding. We hope this book allows more people to learn about and understand a part of Myanmar's art history between 1960-1990.30 USD per book/40,000 MMK. Special discount for artists! All proceeds go towards a future publication of a book about contemporary art in Myanmar. Copies available at Myanmart – 98 Bogalay Zay street, 3rd floor, Botataung township, Yangon OR by special order. Please email nathalie.johnston@gmail.com for more details or message us here.

Publié par Myanm/art sur dimanche 2 juillet 2017

 

Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 : traduction anglaise d’un ouvrage publié en birman en 2009 sous la censure et consacré à l’histoire de l’art birman entre 1960 et 1990. Il sera suivi de deux autres volumes.

Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 is the first volume of a trilogy on contemporary Burmese art.  Since 1885, when Burma fell under British colonial rule, the traditional practices of Burmese art were overshadowed by the influence of Western art trends–particularly the traditions of academic painting and the Impressionist movement.  This book records the progression of Burmese modern art after its encounter with Modernism, focusing on the influence of key individual artists.   Democratic rule ended in 1962, and between 1974 and 1988, when Modernism was evolving to a Post-Modern world, Burma adopted a strict isolationist policy during which only three books on art were published:  The Quest for Beauty by Paw Thit, From Tradition to Modern by Bagyi Aung Soe and Abstract Painting by Khin One.  The end of the closed door policy in 1988 allowed for artists to gain perspective on the international art world and embrace new developments and media.  Artists who worked outside the trajectory of Burmese modern art movements such as Lun Gywe, Maung Nyo Wing, Maung Maung Hla Myint and Tun Sein are also included in the book, as well as those who left to work in other countries (See the chapter « Some early practitioners »).   This volume focuses on modern artists active from 1962 to 1988.  The next volume of Myanmar Contemporary Art will focus on the artists who came after 1988.

Voir : https://www.facebook.com/MyanmarArtEvolution/?

Copies available at Myanmart – 98 Bogalay Zay street, 3rd floor, Botataung township, Yangon OR by special order. Please email nathalie.johnston@gmail.com for more details or message us here.