Archives par mot-clé : Histoire

Rohingya identity and the limits to history

Rohingya identity and the limits to history by Jonathan Saha, 17/09/2017, New Mandala

Public discussions around Rohingya people currently fleeing violence in Rakhine state, Myanmar, have often involved arguments about history. While critical historical analysis is useful in offering insights into conflicts, History—if treated as a single, knowable past—is not. This is especially true when dealing with ethnicity. Whatever the past was, no amount of historical research can justify the current violence against Rohingya people.

The debate around Rohingya ethnicity lacks awareness of wider historiography (the history of historical research). On the one side, those denying that this is ethnic cleansing argue that there is no such thing as a Rohingya ethnic group. It is claimed that these people are actually Bengali Muslim migrants. The writings of historians such as Jacques Lieder have been used, by some, to support this position. He argues that the use of the term Rohingya to connote this Muslim population, although noted by eighteenth-century European travelers, is a modern one. For him, Rohingya is primarily a political identity. On the other side, Rohingya activists have resisted this characterisation. They have countered that there is evidence of Muslims living in the Rakhine region for centuries, and that these groups have periodically been called Rohingya.

Writing in The Diplomat last year, one commentator attempted to disentangle these debates by arguing that “the Rohingya are not an ethnic, but rather a political construction. [emphasis in original]”. This is wrong. Not only wrong in the sense of it being inaccurate, but wrong in two other ways: 1) in that it relies on a false division between the categories “political” and “ethnic”, and then treats the two as if they are mutually exclusive; and 2) in that it assumes that we can definitively know people’s ethnic identification in the past.

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/rohingya-limits-history/

Center for Patani Studies

Center for Patani Studies : Resources for the Study of Patani’s History, Culture, and Society by Francis Bradley

This is an internet center for the study of Patani’s history, culture, and society with a focus on the period prior to its formal inclusion into Siam/Thailand in 1909. Founded in July 2013 by Francis R. Bradley, assistant professor of history in the department of social sciences and cultural studies at the Pratt Institute, the project aims to create a meeting place for people with a scholarly interest in Patani. Current projects include the building of relevant bibliographies and the forging of links between scholars and institutions dedicated to the growth of the field of Patani Studies.

On trouve sur le site des bibliographies : une des sources primaires (manuscrits malais) pour les études sur Patani, une des sources secondaires  (monographies historiques) ainsi qu’une liste des savants musulmans de la région avec quelques données biographiques et leurs oeuvres.

Les chercheurs intéressés sont invités à collaborer au site.

Adresse du site : https://patanistudies.com/

Banda : Heritage for Indonesia

« Banda : Heritage for Indonesia : a seminar and an exhibition about Banda, nutmeg and the treaty of Breda 1667-2017 », 31/07/2017 – 31/08/2017, Erasmus Huis, Jakarta

2017 marks the 350th anniversary of the Treaty of Breda. This Treaty, named after the Dutch city where it was signed on 31 July 1667, ended the Second Anglo-Dutch war (1665–1667) during which England and the Netherlands had fought over maritime hegemony and world trade. Through signing the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch accepted English rule over what is now New York (New Amsterdam), while the British accepted Dutch rule over Suriname and Run, the remotest of the Banda islands. However, the Banda islands had been an international trade centre long before the Portuguese were the first Europeans to visit Banda. It was after their arrival to the islands that various European powers attempted to monopolize the worldwide trade in nutmeg. These disputes turned the Banda islands into a lively, yet often violent stage for world politics. After the Dutch, led by J.P. Coen, unleashed a lethal expedition against the Bandanese in 1621, a Dutch monopoly on the spice was secured even though the British maintained their claim on Run until 1667.

This exhibition traces this fascinating history behind the Treaty of Breda. Through the presentation of historical maps, images and objects, Banda’s multi-faceted history will be highlighted. The visitor gets acquainted with nutmeg and its characteristics, Banda as a centre of international trade and world politics.

Voir : https://www.facebook.com/bartelegallery/photos/a.157149674310864.41895.111961525496346/2010751102284036/?type=3&theater

Alcohol on pre-Islamic Java (800-1500 CE): Cultural, social and ritual uses of an ‘unholy’ brew

Alcohol on pre-Islamic Java (800-1500 CE): Cultural, social and ritual uses of an ‘unholy’ brew by Jirí Jákl, IIAS Lunch Lecture

In this lecture, Jirí Jákl will discuss five selected themes pertaining to the use of alcohol in Java, Indonesia, before 1500 CE. Each theme reflects one of the five chapters of his book project on a sociocultural history of alcohol and its use in pre-Islamic Java, studied in comparative perspective with the discourse on alcohol in medieval India.

Alcohol is extremely controversial in contemporary, Islamic, Java, and was an ambiguous substance even in pre-modern times. Texts in Old Javanese (800 – 1500 CE), in particular religious works and codes of ecclesiastical rules, present intoxicating drinks as forbidden, addictive, and impure. Other sources, including literary prose and poetry, law texts, texts on eroticism, and historical accounts, describe and represent alcohol as arousing, nourishing, and important in a variety of cultural and political contexts.

Apart from analysing Old Javanese and Sanskrit textual discourses on alcohol, additional insight has been gained by contextualising the pre-modern tradition with the uses of alcohol documented from modern Bali, a mainly Hindu society where palm wine and other fermented and distilled drinks continue to be consumed by many, and where alcohol has a great number of ritual uses, some traceable to pre-Islamic Java, some obviously of local pedigree.

In the lecture, Jirí will first briefly introduce an array of fermented and distilled beverages known and consumed in pre-modern Java, and discuss in more detail drinking comportment, vessels, and other paraphernalia associated with the consumption of alcohol. Then, he will give some details on the consumption of alcohol among the gentry, peasants, and inhabitants of urban centres. Adressed next, is the consumption of alcohol among the religious communities, and its use in ritual. Finally, Jirí will adopt a modern perspective and discuss the uses of alcohol in modern Hindu Bali, in secular as well as in ritual contexts.

Jirí Jákl (Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic) is an affiliate research fellow at IIAS from 15 March 2017 – 15 August 2017.

Voir : http://iias.asia/event/alcohol-pre-islamic-java

Sovereign Women in a Muslim Kingdom: The Sultanahs of Aceh, 1641−1699

Sher Banu A.L. Khan, Sovereign Women in a Muslim Kingdom: The Sultanahs of Aceh, 1641−1699, NUS Press, 2017

The Islamic kingdom of Aceh was ruled by queens for half of the 17th century. Was female rule an aberration? Unnatural? A violation of nature, comparable to hens instead of roosters crowing at dawn? Indigenous texts and European sources offer different evaluations. Drawing on both sets of sources, this book shows that female rule was legitimised both by Islam and adat (indigenous customary laws), and provides original insights on the Sultanah’s leadership, their relations with male elites, and their encounters with European envoys who visited their court. The book challenges received views on kingship in the Malay world and the response of indigenous polities to east-west encounters in Southeast Asia’s Age of Commerce.

« We have waited too long for a book such as this. It explores the extraordinary phenomenon of a preference for queens in the golden age of Islamic Aceh. Countering the dominant nationalist, feminist and Islamic scholarship, all of which find uncongenial the striking phenomenon of a preference for queens in early modern Asian Islam, Banu has utilized rich primary sources to reveal a queenship that was truly Islamic, effective and benign. This book is a revelation. Read it. »
Anthony Reid, The Australian National University

« Sher Banu’s superb study based on a host of newly discovered contemporary source materials throws new light on a hotly discussed topic among historians of Southeast Asian statecraft in Early Modern time. »
Leonard Blusse, Leiden University

« The author is to be congratulated on a book that makes a significant contribution both to the history of Southeast Asia and to comparative studies on women in early modern Asia. »
Barbara Watson Andaya and Leonard Y. Andaya, University of Hawai‘i 

Voir : https://nuspress.nus.edu.sg/products/sovereign-women-in-a-muslim-kingdom-the-sultanahs-of-aceh-1641-1699

Balthazar, Prince Noir de Timor et de Solor en Chine, en Amérique et en Europe au XVIIIe siècle

 

Exposition : Balthazar, Prince Noir de Timor et de Solor en Chine, en Amérique et en Europe au XVIIIe siècle, du 22/05/2017 au 02/06/2017, INALCO

Par Frédéric Durand, Professeur, Université Toulouse II – Jean Jaurès

Originaire des îles de la Sonde (Indonésie et Timor-Oriental) où il est né en 1737, dans la communauté de métis Timorais/Portugais des Topasses-Larentuqueiros, Balthazar est selon toute vraisemblance le fils de Gaspar da Costa, le chef des métis portugais qui vivaient entre Flores, Solor et Timor-ouest, et avait le statut de « roi ».
Gaspar da Costa est mort en 1749, lors de la bataille de Penfui contre les Hollandais, à la tête d’une armée de 50 000 hommes. Il est considéré comme un des pionniers de la lutte anti-coloniale aux Indes néerlandaises et sa mémoire est commémorée par un monument à Timor-ouest.

Le Prince Balthazar, se rend à Batavia, à Macao et à Canton, avant de prendre un bateau pour la France, où il est abandonné à l’âge de treize ans par son précepteur, un prêtre portugais. Pour survivre, le jeune Prince embarque sur des bateaux, dont des navires corsaires, qui l’emmène notamment aux Pays-Bas, en Angleterre, en Ecosse et au Québec. Il revient ensuite en France, où il écrit à de nombreuses personnalités dont les rois Louis XV et Louis XVI et le philosophe Voltaire. Il n’est alors pas évident pour lui de se faire reconnaître en France, car en concurrence avec d’autres étrangers se disant « princes », dont ceux d’Angola et de Macao. Au cours des années 1760/70, la presse internationale parle de lui, de l’Italie à l’Angleterre et de Paris à Bratislava. Balthazar fréquente de nombreux milieux intellectuels où religieux, dont des académiciens, des alchimistes, des encyclopédistes et des francs-maçons. Il est également l’ami de la communauté des Noirs et des Asiatiques de Paris. Dans les années 1780, Balthazar devient conteur et poète dans la grande société parisienne, mais en 1789, la Révolution française fait s’effondrer le monde dans lequel il s’était intégré. Il est mort en 1791 à l’Hôtel Dieu de Paris.

Oublié au XXe siècle, plusieurs articles à son sujet on été publiés dans des revues scientifiques, et notamment dans Archipel, à propos de mémoires qu’il avait fait publier dans les années 1760. Les historiens qui avaient travaillé sur lui n’avaient cependant pas perçu sa notoriété et pensaient qu’il était mort pauvre et inconnu.

Les vingt-quatre panneaux de l’exposition reproduisent chronologiquement les étapes importantes de la vie du Prince de Timor et de Solor.

Voir : http://www.inalco.fr/evenement/exposition-balthazar-prince-noir-timor-solor-chine-amerique-europe-xviiie-siecle

Singapour, héroïne de BD

Singapour, héroïne de BD par Patrick de Jacquelot, 11/05/2017, Asialyst

Un éblouissant ouvrage complètement hors normes, la biographie d’un auteur de BD imaginaire de Singapour, livre en toile de fond l’histoire de la cité-État.

Charlie Chan Hock Chye, une vie dessinée, scénario et dessins Sonny Liew, Urban Graphic, 320 p.

C’est un véritable tour de force que Charlie Chan Hock Chye, une vie dessinée*, cette monographie qui a tout d’une vraie – l’épaisseur, la variété des documents reproduits, planches de BD, esquisses, couvertures de magazines, toiles, et plusieurs centaines de notes de bas de page érudites – mais où tout est inventé. Comme de nombreux ouvrages consacrés à des artistes réels de BD, le livre mêle interviews de l’auteur – montrés ici en bande dessinée, évidemment – et documents de toutes sortes. Charlie Chan, censé être né en 1938, raconte sa vie. Sa passion pour la BD se manifeste dès l’enfance, comme en témoignent les pages de cahiers d’écolier reproduites, et débouche sur une première histoire réalisée à l’âge de seize ans, Ah Huat et le robot géant, dans un style très enfantin. Le style de l’auteur imaginaire évoluera beaucoup par la suite…

Par la suite, Charlie Chan varie ses registres : des histoires de science-fiction racontent les luttes pour le pouvoir à Singapour ; il imagine un super héros « local », étape de son travail illustrée par une profusion d’esquisses, de couvertures abîmées de fascicules anciens ou bien de coupures de journaux racontant des faits divers censés avoir inspiré ses histoires.

Les bandes dessinées ainsi « reproduites » reconstituent mine de rien toute l’histoire de la cité-État : guerre, décolonisation, fusion puis séparation de Singapour et de la Fédération de la Malaya, affrontement fondateur entre Lee Kuan Yew, qui deviendra le Premier ministre « père de la patrie », et son rival Lim Chin Siong, homme de gauche qui, ayant eu le dessous, s’exile à Londres. L’impact supposé des événements parfois tragiques sur l’auteur imaginaire est rendu avec beaucoup de subtilité. Au lendemain d’émeutes raciales ayant fait de nombreux morts en 1964, Charlie Chan « publie » une BD de sa série animalière composée de paysages où toute vie est totalement absente.

L’artiste se montre toute sa vie fort critique des autorités. Les attaques contre la politique du PAP, le parti de Lee Kuan Yew devenu omnipotent, sont multiples : Charlie Chan est présenté comme un rebelle pacifique, s’employant dans la solitude à dénoncer les dérives autoritaires du régime. Des planches incendiaires s’en prennent aux tentations eugéniques du gouvernement de Singapour, désireux de promouvoir la natalité des seules mères diplômées (planches « non publiées », est-il précisé en note !). Un pastiche de « Picsou » s’attaque aux pratiques de la place financière de Singapour.

Sonny Liew (le véritable auteur) ne retrace pas seulement l’histoire de la ville : il livre simultanément un portrait passionnant de l’évolution de la bande dessinée sur cette même période, à Singapour bien sûr mais aussi plus globalement. Les difficultés rencontrées par Charlie Chan pour se faire publier, dans ses premières années d’activité, soulignent l’ignorance totale de cette forme d’expression artistique qui prévalait à la fin des années 1950 et dans les années 1960. Le dessinateur et son comparse scénariste doivent démarcher des imprimeurs qui le plus souvent refusent de prendre le risque de telles publications et trouvent bien chère l’utilisation de la couleur. Toute sa vie supposée, l’artiste aura d’ailleurs les plus grandes difficultés à vivre de son œuvre : pendant tout un moment, il est décrit comme vivant grâce à un travail de veilleur de nuit qui lui laisse de nombreuses heures disponibles pour dessiner.

Totalement original, cet ouvrage constitue une étonnante mise en abyme. L’auteur – le vrai – va jusqu’à représenter côte à côte, dans des styles totalement différents, un incident survenu dans la vie de son héros et l’interprétation que ce dernier en donne en BD. La mise en abyme se retrouve aussi dans la reproduction de planches de BD autobiographiques à l’intérieur de la BD biographique… Et on la retrouve dans le monde « réel réel » : alors que tout au long de sa carrière, Charlie Chan le rebelle connaît de nombreux ennuis avec le gouvernement passablement autoritaire de Singapour, Sonny Liew n’est pas épargné dans la vraie vie. Lors de la publication de Charlie Chan Hock Chye, les pouvoirs publics de la cité-État ont retiré à son éditeur la subvention qui lui avait été déjà versée, considérant que l’œuvre s’attaquait à la légitimité et à l’autorité du gouvernement…

Lire l’intégralité du texte sur : https://asialyst.com/fr/2017/05/11/singapour-heroine-de-bd/

Historicizing fiction, fictionalizing history

Historicizing fiction, fictionalizing history by Taufiq Hanafi, 31/03/2017, KITLV Blog

Sometimes fiction tells the truth and history perpetuates a fiction. This blog tells us about how history has been used to serve the creation of a national mythology, while fiction has allowed a space for more difficult histories to be worked out.

Similarly, the bleakest moment in Indonesian history is ignored and silenced. Almost all Indonesian written history skips over the mass killings of the communists and left-wing sympathizers after the aborted coup blamed on the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) in 1965.

Take the obligatory read for elementary students in the 1990s, Pendidikan Sejarah Perjuangan Bangsa (The History of the National Struggle). We Indonesians were so accustomed to this that we thought the historical events presented in the book were all objectively true. The book instructed students to show admiration for the Indonesian Army for their outstanding success in crushing the September movement of the PKI. It also wanted us to believe that the anti-communist purge was the right thing to do in order to support the national struggle for the just and prosperous society under Pancasila. Furthermore, it created a make-believe world in which Soeharto was a hero who had so much love and respect for his people and his country. As for the massacre, the book remained silent.

In fiction, however, the killings were made (more) clear. Ahmad Tohari in the Ronggeng Dukuh Paruk (Dancer of Paruk Hamlet) trilogy narrates the mass killings in Central Java, and describes the close cooperation between the army and paramilitary groups. Mencoba Tidak Menyerah (Trying not to Surrender) by Yudhistira ANM Masardi vividly portrays the systematic massacre and politics of fear through the eyes of a small boy who is searching for his father after he was made to disappear due to his affiliation with the communists. Ashadi Siregar centers his novel, Jentera Lepas, on students who were massacred by the army after the aborted coup, while Umar Kayam in Bawuk questions how society has been dehumanized for not having the courage to address the issue.

Lire la suite sur : http://www.kitlv.nl/blog-historicizing-fiction-fictionalizing-history/

CFP: Archaeology of the Seaports of Manila Galleon and the History of Early Maritime Globalization

CFP: Archaeology of the Seaports of Manila Galleon and the History of Early Maritime Globalization, 21–23July 2017,Amoy, Fujian, China

During 16-19 century, the Spanish navigators established and operated the Manila Galleon maritime route which connected eastern Asia and New Spain in the American continent. The galleons sailed via the hub seaports and trade centers of Manila in the Philippines and Acapulco in Mexico, being a prosperous route for more than 200 years. This pioneering navigation of pan-Pacific regions promoted early global maritime trade and can be regarded as a new maritime Silk Road between the East and the West.

The Manila Galleon Navigation is an interesting academic theme which had been investigated and researched by multi-disciplines as archaeology, history, anthropology, marine navigation, oceanology, and etc. in last half century. The seaport sites and shipwrecks underwater are respectively 2 important types of cultural heritage contributing to archaeological reconstruction of galleon navigation history. An international academic workshop of “Early Navigation in the Asia-Pacific Region” was carried out at Harvard University in summer of 2013. Maritime archaeologists from United States, Mexico, England, Philippine and China met to discuss the early pan-Pacific maritime trade history focusing on the perspective of shipwreck archaeology of galleons (Wu, C. editor, Early Navigation in the Asia-Pacific Region: A Maritime Archaeological Perspective, Springer Press, 2016)

A further dialogue on the galleon and related history of maritime cultural interaction between the Eastern Asia and New Spain will be carried out at Amoy on July 21-23, 2017. The meeting calls for papers focusing on the newest developments in the archaeology of the Manila Galleon connecting seaports of Manila in Philippines, Acapulco and San Blas in Mexico, Hagatna in Guans, Haicheng (Amoy), Macao in China, Nagasaki in Japan. A dozen of presentations respectively on different seaports archaeological fieldworks will be welcome. We hope these archaeological discoveries on galleon seaports will open a new window for sighting and understanding the social cultural exchange on the new maritime Silk Road of pan-Pacific region in last 500 years.

Proposed topics:

1, New archaeological discoveries of Manila Galleon Archaeology and related seaports such as Manila in Philippines, Acapulco and San Blas in Mexico, Hagatna in Guans, Haicheng (Amoy), Macao in China, Nagasaki in Japan

2, Maritime cultural heritage of harbors, historical city architecture, maritime folklore and population of different Manila Galleon related seaports.

3, Transportation between Manila Galleon related harbors, and origin of the cargo such as the kilns of the ceramic industry.

4, Trade, merchants, business organizations and navigation, related to the Manila Galleon.

Plus d’informations sur : http://www.southeastasianarchaeology.com/2017/03/07/cfp-archaeology-of-the-seaports-of-manila-galleon-and-the-history-of-early-maritime-globalization/

Bibliographie des thèses et des mémoires sur les massacres de 1965 en Indonésie

Le site indonésien Genosida 1965-1966 propose une bibliographie des thèses et des mémoires consacrés aux massacres de 1965 en Indonésie qui vient s’ajouter à la liste d’ouvrages et de vidéos en ligne sur la question déjà parue sur le même site sous la rubrique Rumah Baca (Pustaka) Genosida 1965.

Voir : https://genosida1965wordpress.wordpress.com/2016/05/29/kumpulan-tesis-dan-disertasi-terkait-genosida-1965-thesis-and-dissertation-on-1965-massacre/

A Vietnamese Moses : Philiphê Bỉnh and the Geographies of Early Modern Catholicism

George Edson Dutton, A Vietnamese Moses : Philiphê Bỉnh and the Geographies of Early Modern Catholicism, University of California Press, 2016

A télécharger sur Luminos, le programme de publication de monographies en libre accès des Presses Universitaires de Californie : http://www.luminosoa.org/site/books/10.1525/luminos.22/

Abstract

Vietnamese Moses is the story of Philiphê Bỉnh, a Vietnamese Catholic priest who in 1796 traveled from Tonkin to the Portuguese court in Lisbon to persuade its ruler to appoint a bishop for his community of ex-Jesuits. Based on Bỉnh’s surviving writings from his thirty-seven-year exile in Portugal, this book examines how the intersections of global and local Roman Catholic geographies shaped the lives of Vietnamese Christians in the early modern era. The book also argues that Bỉnh’s mission to Portugal and his intense lobbying on behalf of his community reflected the agency of Vietnamese Catholics, who vigorously engaged with church politics in defense of their distinctive Portuguese-Catholic heritage. George E. Dutton demonstrates the ways in which Catholic beliefs, histories, and genealogies transformed how Vietnamese thought about themselves and their place in the world. This sophisticated exploration of Vietnamese engagement with both the Catholic Church and Napoleonic Europe provides a unique perspective on the complex history of early Vietnamese Christianity.

Rappel :

Vous pouvez également télécharger sur Luminos le livre d’Erik Harm, Luxury and Rubble : Civility and Dispossession in the New Saigon, University of California Press, 2016  : http://www.luminosoa.org/site/books/10.1525/luminos.20/

 

Vietnam : National treasures go on display

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« National treasures go on display », 05/01/2017, VietNamNet

16 national treasures will be displayed for the first time at the National Museum of Vietnamese History.

The items were recognised as national treasures due to their special cultural and historical value following an appraisal report of the National Council for Cultural Heritage.

The exhibits include a Ngoc Lu bronze drum related to the Dong Son culture dating back up to 2,500 years ago. It is the most beautiful and intact drum of its type yet discovered and was recognised as a national treasure in 2012.

Other exhibited items include a Dao Thinh bronze jar from the Dong Son culture that dates back 2,500 years, a Dong Son statue depicting two men playing pan pipes dating to around 700 BC, and a large Dong Son bronze lamp in the form of a kneeling person, dating back to around 200 AD.

A Viet Khe boat tomb, a bell from Van Ban Pagoda, an 11th century Le Dynasty stele from Nam Giao Temple and a bronze royal stamp from the 12th century Tran Dynasty are also on display.

Other national treasures include the Prison Diary, a 1927 book entitled Revolutionary Road by Ho Chi Minh, and the handwritten draft of President Ho Chi Minh’s appeal to the nation for a resistance war written in late 1946.

The exhibition will run until May.

Voir : http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/art-entertainment/170710/national-treasures-go-on-display.html

Secrets of the Sea: A Tang Shipwreck and Early Trade in Asia

Exhibition : « Secrets of the Sea: A Tang Shipwreck and Early Trade in Asia », 7 March – 4 June 2017, Asia Society, New York

This exhibition brings the precious contents of a shipwreck discovered off Belitung Island in the Java Sea to American audiences for the first time. The remarkable cargo of spice-filled jars and all together more than 60,000 ceramics produced in China during the Tang dynasty (618–907), plus luxury items of gold and silver, was bound for Iran and Iraq. Selected objects illustrate the story of the active exchange of goods, ideas, and culture in Asia more than one thousand years ago. The exhibition will bring to light how this discovery—one of the most important archaeological revelations of the twentieth century—has changed the way we understand ninth-century Asia.

Secrets of the Sea: A Tang Shipwreck and Trade in Early Asia is jointly organized with the Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore. Objects are from the Khoo Teck Puat Gallery, Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore. The Tang Shipwreck Collection was made possible by the generous donation of the Estate of Khoo Teck Puat in honor of the Late Khoo Teck Puat.

Voir un échantillon des objets exposés : http://asiasociety.org/new-york/exhibitions/secrets-sea-tang-shipwreck-and-early-trade-asia#!artworks