Archives par mot-clé : Citoyenneté

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part II)

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part II) by Matthew J. Walton, 07/09/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

One of the holy grails of democratic studies is the idea of transformative citizenship. Many have theorized about how democracy could be transformative or how engaged citizenship could transform relationships between citizens and government, but it is difficult to really track this concept.

A national political dialogue process made up of biannual 21st Century Panglong Conferences, themselves consisting of 700 elite representatives mostly drawn from a few centrally important institutions, reflects multiple views on citizenship, none of them transformative in empowering or ennobling ways. It further privileges direct political participation and decision-making for a select few, while imposing a set of passive citizenship practices on the vast majority of the population. A meaningful voice in political decision-making (particularly about their own affairs) is the central complaint of almost every interest group in Myanmar, from ethnic armed groups to women’s organisations to opposition parties and student unions. Yet almost every step of the process leading to the current national political dialogue framework (from initial negotiations between a small government team and ethnic armed group leaders through to the drafting of the final framework by a nine member, all male group behind closed doors) has reinforced the notion that for most, citizenship is primarily a non-participatory notion, merely the act of being represented. And this type of citizenship cannot be transformative in the sense of turning people into more active, knowledgeable, inter-connected, and empathetic members of a political community.

What types of citizen engagement might be potentially transformative? A 2011 study looked at the presumed benefits of citizen participation in democratic governance and found that the positive effects of expanded participation are noticeable primarily to those actually taking part, which should not be surprising. The study specified these benefits as coming in the form of “knowledge, skills, and [democratic] virtues” (Michels 2011, 290). This insight helps to distinguish between the effects of different types of “democratic innovations,” for example referendums and deliberative forums. While referendums seem to result in more direct policy influence, deliberative forums would contribute more to individual citizen development, not to mention the embeddedness that seems to be so critical in the citizen-political community relationship.

Lire la suite : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/09/07/political-communication-and-transformative-citizenship-in-myanmar-part-ii/

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part I)

Political Communication and Transformative Citizenship in Myanmar (Part I) by Matthew J. Walton, 06/09/2017, Tea Circle (Oxford)

Citizenship is undoubtedly one of the more contentious issues in Myanmar today. But with so much focus on the boundaries of national inclusion, discussions usually ignore a key aspect of citizenship: its practice. The following two posts are excerpted from a chapter that will appear in an upcoming volume, Citizenship in Myanmar: ways of being in and from Burma, edited by Ashley South and Marie Lall (ISEAS Press and Chiang Mai University Press, 2018).

The practice of citizenship includes various perspectives on what citizenship entails (the different rights and responsibilities), the roles of state and civil society groups in fostering citizenship, and expectations of citizen participation (as well as expectations of the state in facilitating that participation). A discussion of the practice of citizenship should also include attention to the many “skills” of citizenship that go beyond basic rights and responsibilities. Especially important—but often unaddressed—are the particular citizenship skills that need to be cultivated by government officials.

Developing a broader understanding of a diverse range of citizenship skills and practices is particularly necessary in the context of Myanmar’s rapid political change. Since at least the 2008 constitutional referendum, the country’s citizens have been expected to participate in politics in a variety of ways that were not only previously unavailable to them, they were actively denied by military-led governments. The result is a situation in which the meaning and content of citizenship is either limited among citizens or expressed in ways that do not necessarily accord with centralized notions of citizenship and participation in Myanmar or with international norms.

In these two posts, I consider the practice of citizenship primarily in relation to the national political dialogue process, now officially reconfigured as the 21st Century Panglong Conference, arguably the forum that (in some form or another) will shape Myanmar’s political future. This is a useful starting point for critical analysis, especially because many of the crucial aspects of citizenship practice that I discuss are completely ignored in the current political dialogue process.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/09/06/political-communication-and-transformative-citizenship-in-myanmar-part-i/

Inside Indonesia, n° 129 (Jul. – Sep. 2017) : Citizenship

Inside Indonesia n° 129 (Jul. – Sep. 2017) : Citizenship

« I am an Indonesian citizen! » by Ward Berenschot and Gerry van Klinken

What does exercising citizenship in Indonesia’s democracy look like?

 Digital citizenship by M. Zamzam Fauzanafi

Online corruption talk in Banten can be vitriolic

Labour takes a citizenship approach by Hari Nugroho

Despite the impressive activism of Pekalongan’s labour union, its political clout remains limited

Indonesia’s diaspora citizens by Yearry Panji Setianto

After decades of neglect, Indonesia’s diaspora demands more rights

From mother to citizen by Vita Febriany

The New Order actively promoted citizenship of a particular kind for women

 « We are natural-born children, you are adopted » by Safrudin Amin   

Locals contest national citizenship rights in North Maluku

When « home » is not home by Laila Kholid Alfirdaus

Locals react coolly to ex-transmigrants who return to Java after fleeing violence elsewhere

 Islam and citizenship by Chris Chaplin

Organisations like Wahdah Islamiyah envision an ‘Islamic’ citizenship for Indonesia

A lire sur : http://www.insideindonesia.org/edition-129-jul-sep-2017-2