Archives par mot-clé : Birmanie/Myanmar

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: Research among the Karen, Past and Present [Part 2]

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: « Research among the Karen, Past and Present » [Part 2]

Pia Jolliffe interviews anthropologist Mikael Gravers.

This week on Tea Circle, we’re pleased to feature a two-part interview with anthropologist Mikael Gravers, an expert on nationalism, ethnic conflict, and peace and reconciliation, with extensive experience working among Karen communities in Thailand and Myanmar. He is the author of a number of books on Burma/Myanmar, including Burma/Myanmar— Where Now?, Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, and Nationalism as Political Paranoia in Burma. He is also a researcher on the project “Everyday Justice and Security in the Myanmar Transition”.

Lire l’article sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/07/06/a-conversation-with-mikael-gravers-research-among-the-karen-past-and-present-part-2/

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: Research among the Karen, Past and Present [Part 1]

A Conversation with Mikael Gravers: « Research among the Karen, Past and Present » [Part 1]

Pia Jolliffe interviews anthropologist Mikael Gravers.

This week on Tea Circle, we’re pleased to feature a two-part interview with anthropologist Mikael Gravers, an expert on nationalism, ethnic conflict, and peace and reconciliation, with extensive experience working among Karen communities in Thailand and Myanmar. He is the author of a number of books on Burma/Myanmar, including Burma/Myanmar— Where Now?, Exploring Ethnic Diversity in Burma, and Nationalism as Political Paranoia in Burma. He is also a researcher on the project “Everyday Justice and Security in the Myanmar Transition”.

Lire https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/07/05/a-conversation-with-mikael-gravers-research-among-the-karen-past-and-present-part-1/

 

Myanmar contemporary art 1

Launch: Myanmar Contemporary Art 1

Now available for purchase at Myanmart! After 2 years of hard work and many brilliant collaborators and donors, the translation, redesign and publication of Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 (MCA1) is complete! Originally published in Burmese language in 2009 under censorship, the new edition was raised through crowdfunding. We hope this book allows more people to learn about and understand a part of Myanmar's art history between 1960-1990.30 USD per book/40,000 MMK. Special discount for artists! All proceeds go towards a future publication of a book about contemporary art in Myanmar. Copies available at Myanmart – 98 Bogalay Zay street, 3rd floor, Botataung township, Yangon OR by special order. Please email nathalie.johnston@gmail.com for more details or message us here.

Publié par Myanm/art sur dimanche 2 juillet 2017

 

Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 : traduction anglaise d’un ouvrage publié en birman en 2009 sous la censure et consacré à l’histoire de l’art birman entre 1960 et 1990. Il sera suivi de deux autres volumes.

Myanmar Contemporary Art 1 is the first volume of a trilogy on contemporary Burmese art.  Since 1885, when Burma fell under British colonial rule, the traditional practices of Burmese art were overshadowed by the influence of Western art trends–particularly the traditions of academic painting and the Impressionist movement.  This book records the progression of Burmese modern art after its encounter with Modernism, focusing on the influence of key individual artists.   Democratic rule ended in 1962, and between 1974 and 1988, when Modernism was evolving to a Post-Modern world, Burma adopted a strict isolationist policy during which only three books on art were published:  The Quest for Beauty by Paw Thit, From Tradition to Modern by Bagyi Aung Soe and Abstract Painting by Khin One.  The end of the closed door policy in 1988 allowed for artists to gain perspective on the international art world and embrace new developments and media.  Artists who worked outside the trajectory of Burmese modern art movements such as Lun Gywe, Maung Nyo Wing, Maung Maung Hla Myint and Tun Sein are also included in the book, as well as those who left to work in other countries (See the chapter « Some early practitioners »).   This volume focuses on modern artists active from 1962 to 1988.  The next volume of Myanmar Contemporary Art will focus on the artists who came after 1988.

Voir : https://www.facebook.com/MyanmarArtEvolution/?

Copies available at Myanmart – 98 Bogalay Zay street, 3rd floor, Botataung township, Yangon OR by special order. Please email nathalie.johnston@gmail.com for more details or message us here.

 

 

The Poet Parliament – an artistic administration ready to deliver?

 

The Poet Parliament – an artistic administration ready to deliver? by Matt Grace, 22/06/2017, Tea Circle : an Oxford forum for new perspectives on Burma/Myanmar

Matt Grace reviews developments in the arts.

This post is part of Tea Circle’s “Year in Review” series, which looks back at developments in different fields over the last year.

After Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy (NLD) strolled to victory in the 2015 General Election, much discussion was dedicated to the demographic make-up of the country’s new ruling party. Analysis of the NLD’s new parliamentary body was often critical, characterising it as both too old and too inexperienced (negative assessments individually, but uniquely damning together), and rightly condemning its decision not to run a single Muslim candidate for office.

One demographic oddity which did make positive headlines, however, was the election to office of 11 poets. In fact, the number of NLD MPs voted in on 8th November who defined themselves as poets was only two fewer than those who listed their profession as politician.

Although there is no doubt that the victory of poet and former political prisoner U Tin Thit over former Defense Minister U Wai Lwin was a sensational story, there is an argument that column inches dedicated to the number of poets in parliament gained more traction due to alliterative potential than newsworthiness. That being said, the phenomenon did highlight an artistic streak running through Myanmar’s new ruling party.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/06/22/the-poet-parliament-an-artistic-administration-ready-to-deliver/

 

Pinle (Maingmaw): Research at an Ancient Pyu City, Myanmar

Archeology Report Series : Pinle (Maingmaw): Research at an  Ancient Pyu City, Myanmar by Myo Nyunt and  Kyaw Myo Win, Nalanda-Sriwijaya Centre, ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute

The walled Pinle (Maingmaw) occupies a special place in the early urbanisation of Myanmar with this collaborative publication being the first solely focused on the site. It follows the NSC Archaeology Unit Report on Beikthano (Thein Lwin 2016). The present publication is an edited translation of two excavation reports of Pinle with editors’ comments adding background to the documentation of the unearthing of a brick structure and gate as well as exploration of potential sites in the surrounding region. Pinle was one of the network of independent Pyu polities in the first millennium CE, larger than Halin, one of the Pyu Ancient Cities. The importance of the Pinle region continued through the 9th to 13th centuries CE Bagan period. A significant multi-lingual inscription of the late 11th century was unearthed in Myittha, 14 km to the north and a contemporaneous walled rice fort is located south of Pinle. These details underline the fertility and strategic location of Pinle, vital in understanding the prosperity of Pyu cities of the first millennium CE and the formation of the first Myanmar state at Bagan.

Télécharger le rapport sur : https://www.iseas.edu.sg/images/pdf/AU6%20Pinle%202-reduced.pdf

Mapping the Maps – a guest post from Natasha Pairaudeau

Mapping the Maps – a guest post from Natasha Pairaudeau, 18/04/2017, Cambridge University Library Special Collections Blog

Imagine maps as big as bedsheets, and then imagine the sheets big enough for beds made wide enough to sleep extended families. Only such a double stretch of the imagination can provide the scale of the three Burmese maps in the University Library’s collection, which have recently been made available online in digital format.

From bedsheet to map is not a great leap: all three maps are inked or painted on to generous lengths of cloth. Yet they do not depict lines on a map as the eye in the 21st century is accustomed to seeing them. The most colourful of the three maps, the map of the Maingnyaung region [Maps.Ms.Plans.R.c.1 ; see also above for an extract from this map] is the one which forces the most abrupt lurch, down from that comfortable view on high of modern mapping convention.  Instead, the viewer is positioned near ground level, and invited here to view a stupa, there a crocodile down in the river, away in the distance a noble line of hills. Trees are no mere generic features. While the perspective is mostly from the ground, it co-exists with other even less familiar conventions. Pagodas and stupas either loom large or sit very small, their size and their sanctity apparently intermeshed. Towns and villages, rivers and streams are the sole features which come close to appearing from a bird’s eye view. Yet the neat tracings of brickwork, and of waves on the water’s surface, suggest they may be meant to convey not the lay of the land from the air but other rules of belonging, of enclosure or of flow.

The other two maps, the map of the Royal Lands [Maps.Ms.Plans.R.c.3] and map of Sa-lay township [Maps.Ms.Plans.R.c.2], are less colourful than the first, but in some respects even more intriguing. Like the Maingnyaung map, they take many of their bearings from ground level. Manmade landmarks use scales which vary, apparently,  according to their importance rather than their physical size. With vegetation, there is an insistence on specifics. Yet both maps feature grids traced carefully and evenly across the entire surface. These maps present two worlds at once. There are vistas to be contemplated and meaningful features to be explored in the landscape. But there is also a view from on high, where trees were counted and areas under crop were calculated, and probably, somewhere off the surface of the map, converted into tax exactions.

These maps have already received a share of attention. Allegra Giovine (a doctoral student in the History of Science who studies the production of economic knowledge in colonial Burma) helped to translate notes on the Maingnyaung map from Burmese. The Cambridge maps formed the core of a survey of indigenous Burmese maps in UK collections by Professor Tin Naing Win, the inaugural Charles Wallace Burma Trust Fellow (2015) at the Cambridge Centre of South Asian Studies. They sparked the interest of Marie de Rugy in her recent thesis (Paris 1 – Sorbonne) on Maps and the Making of Imperial Territories in the Northern Indochinese Peninsula. François Tainturier of the Inya Institute continues to study these maps and to re-assess their role in pre-colonial Upper Burma. Much remains nonetheless to be learned about these maps, by those equipped to read the Burmese script which annotates them, and to interpret the wider context of their production and the modes of representation they employ.

Lire la suite sur : https://specialcollections.blog.lib.cam.ac.uk/?p=14308

Ethnic Media in Myanmar: Same Challenges, Different Environment, New Approaches

Ethnic Media in Myanmar: Same Challenges, Different Environment, New Approaches by Ko Htwe, 07/06/2017, Tea Circle (an Oxford forum for New Perspectives on Burma/Myanmar)

Ko Htwe describes ethnic media’s response to constraints on the press in Myanmar.

Ko Htwe is a postgraduate student at Cardiff University studying Journalism, Media and Communication. His research “The Role of Ethnic Media in New Myanmar” was published by Chiang Mai University, Thailand. He has also written articles for Bangkok Post, Asia Sentinel, Walkley Magazine, DVB, Irrawaddy and Karen news.

After reforms by Myanmar’s post-2011 government, the landscape for both mainstream and ethnic media has changed dramatically, with new media outlets blooming. Abolishing the country’s censor board and welcoming exiled media groups to publish in-country, the quasi-civilian Thein Sein government pursued major advances toward press freedom. More than 885 publications— including 50 published in ethnic languages— have been approved by the government, up from 300 registered in 2014. Among these publications are three Chin language daily newspapers, 40 ethnic language journals and seven ethnic language magazines, according to Pe Myint, Minister of Information.

The ethnic language publications, in particular, represent a notable expansion of ethnic media— a term I define elsewhere as “publications, broadcasts or websites that are associated with ethnic minority peoples and that focus on ethnic minority concerns, regardless of whether they use Burmese or an ethnic minority language.” Also included as part of “ethnic media” are “state-based” and “locally-based” periodicals, distributed in ethnic minority areas in Myanmar, that take up ethnic-minority concerns.

Under the present administration, led by Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi and her National League for Democracy (NLD), many Burmese media onlookers believe that the media industry will see further progress. However, according to a recent PEN Myanmar press release on World Press Freedom Day, the country’s free expression score is only 8 out of 60 possible points. Limited access to information, markets, and funding, harassment of journalists and editors, as well as difficulties in securing long-term sustainability were the main barriers for media groups, both ethnic and mainstream Burmese. Moreover, journalists and editors face possible lawsuits under 66(d) of the Telecommunication Law, which can result in a prison sentence up to three years for defamation using a telecommunications network. At least 54 people have been charged under this law, with eight people sentenced to prison for their posts on social media, according to a letter from Human Rights Watch to the Attorney General and officials from the Ministry of Transport and Communications. Recently, Yangon based The Voice Daily’s editor-in-chief and regular satire contributor faced a lawsuit filed by the military under 66(d).

Despite these difficulties, daily, weekly and monthly publications, covering news, sports, entertainment and astrology both in Burmese and in ethnic languages, are being published in Myanmar. Some publications survive, but many periodicals have disappeared.

Lire la suite sur : https://teacircleoxford.com/2017/06/07/ethnic-media-in-myanmar-same-challenges-different-environment-new-approaches/

Birmanie, le pouvoir des moines

Birmanie, le pouvoir des moines
un film de Joël Curtz et Benoît Grimont
 
Myanmar, die Macht der Mönche
ein film von Joël Curtz und Benoît Grimont
sera diffusé sur ARTE
auf ARTE ausgestrahlt wird
le mardi 20 JUIN à 23h20
en France et en Belgique
und
am Dienstag 20. Juni um 23h20Uhr
in Deutschland und Österreich
 
 

Cannes 2017 – « Le vénérable W. » de Barbet Schroeder

Cannes 2017 – « Le vénérable W. » de Barbet Schroeder, chronique édifiante du discours de la haine par Frédéric Strauss,  20/05/2017, Télérama

Dans un documentaire exemplaire car méthodique, présenté en séance spéciale à Cannes, le Suisse Barbet Schroeder part à la rencontre de Wirathu. Ce moine birman qui, par ses sermons extrémistes, a encouragé le massacre des musulmans dans son pays. Quand le bouddhisme confine au fascisme.

Le film sortira en France le 7 juin 2017.

Il a la haine. Les vieux arbres qui gardaient ses plus beaux souvenirs, à côté de chez lui, le voisin les a fait couper. Pour oublier ce crime, Barbet Schroeder part à Mandalay, en Birmanie, où il découvrit, à 20 ans, le bouddhisme. Une religion qui apprend à vivre sans haine. S’il n’a pas perdu la foi, le cinéaste ne croit cependant plus aux miracles. Le but de son voyage est de rencontrer un moine qui, tel un pompier pyromane, allume des incendies, attise les flammes d’un fanatisme meurtrier : le vénérable et pourtant détestable Wirathu.

Sous ses allures de bonze, c’est une sorte d’héritier d’Hitler qu’on découvre, tout entier voué à la persécution et à l’extermination d’une population : les musulmans de Birmanie, et particulièrement la minorité des Rohingyas. Wirathu les compare à des animaux sauvages qui se reproduisent comme des lapins, se dévorent entre eux et détruisent l’environnement. Monstrueux et glaçant, son discours veut faire naître chez les Birmans bouddhistes « la peur de la disparition de la race », titre d’un de ses livres. Il faut éliminer les musulmans, ou ils seront, eux, éliminés… Face à cet apôtre de la haine, Barbet Schroeder garde un étonnant sang-froid. Son regard droit, objectif, rend la confrontation impressionnante. Avec ce film, il clôt une « trilogie du Mal », commencée avec les documentaires Général Idi Amin Dada : autoportrait (1974) et L’Avocat de la terreur (2007), sur Jacques Vergès…

Lire la suite et voir la bande annonce sur : http://www.telerama.fr/festival-de-cannes/2017/cannes-2017-le-venerable-w-de-barbet-schroeder-chronique-edifiante-du-discours-de-la-haine,158235.php

“Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia

Julian Kirchherr, Nathanial Matthews, Katrina J. Charles, Matthew J. Walton, “Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, Energy Policy, vol. 102, March 2017

Highlights

  • Very first regional case study on social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia.
  • Found that Chinese dam developers increasingly take into account international social safeguards norms.
  • Root cause is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer.
Abstract
Chinese dam developers claim to construct at least every second dam worldwide. However, scholarly literature comprehensively investigating the social safeguard norms in these projects is rare. This paper analyses social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, hotspots of Chinese-led dam construction. We find that social safeguard norms adopted have significantly changed in the past 15 years. While Chinese dam developers claimed to adopt standards of the host countries upon the launch of China’s Going Out Policy in 2001, with occasional adoption of more demanding Chinese standards, they did not adopt international norms. In recent years, however, they increasingly take into account international norms. We argue that the root cause for this change is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer. Enhanced social safeguard legislation in host countries and China, stricter rules of Chinese funders and cooperation of Chinese dam developers with international players have also facilitated this change.
Voir : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516307212

The Mists of Ramanna : The Legend That Was Lower Burma

Michael A. Aung-Thwin, The Mists of Ramanna : The Legend That Was Lower Burma, University of Hawaii Press, 2005

Scholars have long accepted the belief that a Theravada Buddhist Mon kingdom, Ramannadesa, flourished in coastal Lower Burma until it was conquered in 1057 by King Aniruddha of Pagan—which then became, in essence, the new custodian and repository of Mon culture in the Upper Burmese interior. This scenario, which Aung-Thwin calls the «  »Mon Paradigm, » » has circumscribed much of the scholarship on early Burma and significantly shaped the history of Southeast Asia for more than a century. Now, in a masterful reassessment of Burmese history, Michael Aung-Thwin reexamines the original contemporary accounts and sources without finding any evidence of an early Theravada Mon polity or a conquest by Aniruddha. The paradigm, he finds, cannot be sustained. Aung-Thwin meticulously traces the paradigm’s creation to the merging of two temporally, causally, and contextually unrelated Mon and Burmese narratives.

A télécharger sur Oapen Library : http://oapen.org/search?identifier=625896#.WPAx4CBr-mw.email

2016 Wang Gungwu Prize

2016 Wang Gungwu Prize : Burma–Bengal Crossings: Intercolonial Connections in Pre-Independence India by Devleena Ghosh in Asian Studies Review, vol. 40, no. 2

Asian Studies Association of Australia (ASAA) president Professor Kent Anderson announced that Devleena Ghosh, an associate professor at the University of Technology Sydney, had been awarded the prestigious annual award for the best article in Asian Studies Review in 2016.

The article explores cultural and personal flows across the Bay of Bengal and the modern states of Burma, West Bengal and Bangladesh.

Abstract :

The large-scale movement of people between Burma and Bengal in the early twentieth century has been explored recently by authors such as Sugata Bose and Sunil Amrith who locate Burma within the wider migratory culture of the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. This article argues that the long and historical connections between Bengalis and Burmese were transformed by the British colonisation of the region. Through an analysis of selected literary texts in Bengali, some by well-known and others by obscure writers, this article shows that, for Indians, Burma constituted an elsewhere where the fantastic and superhuman were within reach, and caste and religious constraints could be circumvented and radical possibilities enabled by masquerade and disguise.

Cet article est disponible sur : http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10357823.2016.1158237

Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2017

Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2017

Interpreting Communal Violence in Myanmar

Table of contents

Original articles

  • Introduction: Interpreting Communal Violence in Myanmar by Nick Cheesman
  • The Contentious Politics of Anti-Muslim Scapegoating in Myanmar by Gerry van Klinken and Su Mon Thazin Aung
  • Reconciling Contradictions: Buddhist-Muslim Violence, Narrative Making and Memory in Myanmar by Matt Schissler, Matthew J. Walton and Phyu Phyu Thi
  • Gendered Rumours and the Muslim Scapegoat in Myanmar’s Transition by Gerard McCarthy and Jacqueline Menager
  • Communal Conflict in Myanmar: The Legislature’s Response, 2012–2015 by Chit Win and Thomas Kean
  • Producing the News: Reporting on Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis by Lisa Brooten and Yola Verbruggen
  • How in Myanmar “National Races” Came to Surpass Citizenship and Exclude Rohingya by Nick Cheesman

Book Reviews

  • Nick Cheesman, Opposing the Rule of Law: How Myanmar’s Courts Make Law and Order by Susanne Prager-Nyein
  • Melissa Crouch (ed.), Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist Relations and the Politics of Belonging by Iza R. Hussin
  • Jayde Lin Roberts, Mapping Chinese Rangoon: Place and Nation among the Sino-Burmese by Elaine L.E. Ho
  • Pia Joliffe, Learning, Migration and Intergenerational Relations: The Karen and the Gift of Education by Shirley Worland

Voir : http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjoc20/47/3

Peace and nation-building in Myanmar

Peace and nation-building in Myanmar by James T. Davies, 24/03/2017, New Mandala

James T. Davies reflects on the challenges to establishing a unified and conflict-free Myanmar.

Inclusion, understanding, autonomy, conflict and poverty – often far from the reach of the state — reflect just some of the challenges, as opportunities and progress, linked to the emergence of an inclusive national identity in Myanmar.

They were also the focus of an excellent panel discussion as part of the 2017 Myanmar Update hosted by the Australian National University on 17-18 February.

Cecile Medail, PhD Candidate at the University of New South Wales, began the panel with a look at the grassroots voices of Mon people in forming an inclusive national identity in Myanmar. The challenges of national identity during transition, and particularly for minority communities, were noted …

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/peace-nation-building-myanmar/

 

The wisdom in the literature by Andrew Selth

The wisdom in the literature by Andrew Selth, 21/03/2017, New Mandala

Andrew Selth outlines why past generations’ accumulated literary and scholarly work on Myanmar is at risk of being lost — and what this might mean for the country’s future.

There is an old Myanmar saying that ‘wisdom is in the literature’. This was particularly the case before 1988, when the country was virtually closed to foreigners and fieldwork of any kind was very difficult. The Internet was still in its infancy and Myanmar-watchers of all kinds were heavily reliant on books, serials and other documentary sources, both to acquire information and to present their findings to a wider audience.

Access to Myanmar is now much easier and the past few decades have seen a flood of foreign officials, scholars and others intent on conducting primary research. As noted on New Mandala, this has contributed to a dramatic increase in the number of books, reports and articles written about the country. A new Griffith Asia Institute study lists over 1,800 monographs published in English alone, and in hard copy, over the past 25 years.

At the same time, however, there is an increasing danger that the accumulated knowledge of earlier generations of Myanmar-watchers will become dispersed, if not actually lost.

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/the-wisdom-in-the-literature/