Archives par mot-clé : Birmanie/Myanmar

“Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia

Julian Kirchherr, Nathanial Matthews, Katrina J. Charles, Matthew J. Walton, “Learning it the Hard Way”: Social safeguards norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, Energy Policy, vol. 102, March 2017

Highlights

  • Very first regional case study on social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia.
  • Found that Chinese dam developers increasingly take into account international social safeguards norms.
  • Root cause is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer.
Abstract
Chinese dam developers claim to construct at least every second dam worldwide. However, scholarly literature comprehensively investigating the social safeguard norms in these projects is rare. This paper analyses social safeguard norms in Chinese-led dam projects in Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia, hotspots of Chinese-led dam construction. We find that social safeguard norms adopted have significantly changed in the past 15 years. While Chinese dam developers claimed to adopt standards of the host countries upon the launch of China’s Going Out Policy in 2001, with occasional adoption of more demanding Chinese standards, they did not adopt international norms. In recent years, however, they increasingly take into account international norms. We argue that the root cause for this change is social mobilization, with the suspension of the Myitsone Dam in 2011 as a particular game changer. Enhanced social safeguard legislation in host countries and China, stricter rules of Chinese funders and cooperation of Chinese dam developers with international players have also facilitated this change.
Voir : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516307212

The Mists of Ramanna : The Legend That Was Lower Burma

Michael A. Aung-Thwin, The Mists of Ramanna : The Legend That Was Lower Burma, University of Hawaii Press, 2005

Scholars have long accepted the belief that a Theravada Buddhist Mon kingdom, Ramannadesa, flourished in coastal Lower Burma until it was conquered in 1057 by King Aniruddha of Pagan—which then became, in essence, the new custodian and repository of Mon culture in the Upper Burmese interior. This scenario, which Aung-Thwin calls the «  »Mon Paradigm, » » has circumscribed much of the scholarship on early Burma and significantly shaped the history of Southeast Asia for more than a century. Now, in a masterful reassessment of Burmese history, Michael Aung-Thwin reexamines the original contemporary accounts and sources without finding any evidence of an early Theravada Mon polity or a conquest by Aniruddha. The paradigm, he finds, cannot be sustained. Aung-Thwin meticulously traces the paradigm’s creation to the merging of two temporally, causally, and contextually unrelated Mon and Burmese narratives.

A télécharger sur Oapen Library : http://oapen.org/search?identifier=625896#.WPAx4CBr-mw.email

2016 Wang Gungwu Prize

2016 Wang Gungwu Prize : Burma–Bengal Crossings: Intercolonial Connections in Pre-Independence India by Devleena Ghosh in Asian Studies Review, vol. 40, no. 2

Asian Studies Association of Australia (ASAA) president Professor Kent Anderson announced that Devleena Ghosh, an associate professor at the University of Technology Sydney, had been awarded the prestigious annual award for the best article in Asian Studies Review in 2016.

The article explores cultural and personal flows across the Bay of Bengal and the modern states of Burma, West Bengal and Bangladesh.

Abstract :

The large-scale movement of people between Burma and Bengal in the early twentieth century has been explored recently by authors such as Sugata Bose and Sunil Amrith who locate Burma within the wider migratory culture of the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal and Southeast Asia. This article argues that the long and historical connections between Bengalis and Burmese were transformed by the British colonisation of the region. Through an analysis of selected literary texts in Bengali, some by well-known and others by obscure writers, this article shows that, for Indians, Burma constituted an elsewhere where the fantastic and superhuman were within reach, and caste and religious constraints could be circumvented and radical possibilities enabled by masquerade and disguise.

Cet article est disponible sur : http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10357823.2016.1158237

Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2017

Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 47, no. 3, July 2017

Interpreting Communal Violence in Myanmar

Table of contents

Original articles

  • Introduction: Interpreting Communal Violence in Myanmar by Nick Cheesman
  • The Contentious Politics of Anti-Muslim Scapegoating in Myanmar by Gerry van Klinken and Su Mon Thazin Aung
  • Reconciling Contradictions: Buddhist-Muslim Violence, Narrative Making and Memory in Myanmar by Matt Schissler, Matthew J. Walton and Phyu Phyu Thi
  • Gendered Rumours and the Muslim Scapegoat in Myanmar’s Transition by Gerard McCarthy and Jacqueline Menager
  • Communal Conflict in Myanmar: The Legislature’s Response, 2012–2015 by Chit Win and Thomas Kean
  • Producing the News: Reporting on Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis by Lisa Brooten and Yola Verbruggen
  • How in Myanmar “National Races” Came to Surpass Citizenship and Exclude Rohingya by Nick Cheesman

Book Reviews

  • Nick Cheesman, Opposing the Rule of Law: How Myanmar’s Courts Make Law and Order by Susanne Prager-Nyein
  • Melissa Crouch (ed.), Islam and the State in Myanmar: Muslim-Buddhist Relations and the Politics of Belonging by Iza R. Hussin
  • Jayde Lin Roberts, Mapping Chinese Rangoon: Place and Nation among the Sino-Burmese by Elaine L.E. Ho
  • Pia Joliffe, Learning, Migration and Intergenerational Relations: The Karen and the Gift of Education by Shirley Worland

Voir : http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/rjoc20/47/3

Peace and nation-building in Myanmar

Peace and nation-building in Myanmar by James T. Davies, 24/03/2017, New Mandala

James T. Davies reflects on the challenges to establishing a unified and conflict-free Myanmar.

Inclusion, understanding, autonomy, conflict and poverty – often far from the reach of the state — reflect just some of the challenges, as opportunities and progress, linked to the emergence of an inclusive national identity in Myanmar.

They were also the focus of an excellent panel discussion as part of the 2017 Myanmar Update hosted by the Australian National University on 17-18 February.

Cecile Medail, PhD Candidate at the University of New South Wales, began the panel with a look at the grassroots voices of Mon people in forming an inclusive national identity in Myanmar. The challenges of national identity during transition, and particularly for minority communities, were noted …

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/peace-nation-building-myanmar/

 

The wisdom in the literature by Andrew Selth

The wisdom in the literature by Andrew Selth, 21/03/2017, New Mandala

Andrew Selth outlines why past generations’ accumulated literary and scholarly work on Myanmar is at risk of being lost — and what this might mean for the country’s future.

There is an old Myanmar saying that ‘wisdom is in the literature’. This was particularly the case before 1988, when the country was virtually closed to foreigners and fieldwork of any kind was very difficult. The Internet was still in its infancy and Myanmar-watchers of all kinds were heavily reliant on books, serials and other documentary sources, both to acquire information and to present their findings to a wider audience.

Access to Myanmar is now much easier and the past few decades have seen a flood of foreign officials, scholars and others intent on conducting primary research. As noted on New Mandala, this has contributed to a dramatic increase in the number of books, reports and articles written about the country. A new Griffith Asia Institute study lists over 1,800 monographs published in English alone, and in hard copy, over the past 25 years.

At the same time, however, there is an increasing danger that the accumulated knowledge of earlier generations of Myanmar-watchers will become dispersed, if not actually lost.

Lire la suite sur : http://www.newmandala.org/the-wisdom-in-the-literature/

Communal Violence in Myanmar

CSEAS Lecture. Communal Violence in Myanmar: Roundtable Discussion, 27/03/2017, University of Michigan

Since 2012, Myanmar has experienced recurrent, sporadic, collective acts of lethal violence, realized through repeated public expressions that Muslims constitute an existential threat to Buddhists. Much of this has been directed at those who identify as Rohingya, but it has not been limited to this category. The panelists discuss the narratives, genealogies and typologies of this violence, drawing on scholarship from South and Southeast Asia.

Panelists:

Nick Cheesman, Fellow, Department of Political & Social Change Coral Bell School of Asia Pacific Affairs, Australian National University, 2016-17 Member of Princeton’s Institute for Advanced Study

Mike McGovern, Associate Professor, Anthropology & Director of Undergraduate Studies, University of Michigan

Matt Schissler, Doctoral Student in Anthropology, University of Michigan

Moderated by Allen Hicken, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan

Voir : https://www.ii.umich.edu/cseas/news-events/events.detail.html/39698-8241180.html

 

Buddhist Sectarianism in Burma’s Last Kingdom

Buddhist Sectarianism in Burma’s Last Kingdom by Alexandra Kolayanides (Stanford), 02/05/2017, UC Berkeley Centre for Southeast Asia Studies

The collapse of Burma’s final kingdom was devastating for the Buddhist organizations that depended on its royal sponsorship. The nineteenth-century encroachment of the British Raj crippled both the Konbaung Dynasty and its once-powerful monastic establishment, but it also created opportunities for opposition parties. One adversarial Buddhist sect, the Paramats, was particularly active between the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852 and the total colonization of the country in 1886. This reformist sect has been something of a mystery in the study of Burmese Buddhism because of minimal references to them in official Burmese materials. This paper examines a previously unstudied collection of documents dating from 1830–1880 found in an American missionary archive to argue that the Paramats were not a kind of Mahayanist group dedicated to propounding emptiness teachings, as scholars have argued, but rather, they were a Burmese Buddhist organization concerned with protesting laxity within mainstream monasteries and excess at royally-sponsored shrines. These archival documents suggest that scholars should attend to politics, as well as philosophy, to understand this particular sectarian development and similar religious reform movements at the end of the Konbaung Dynasty.

Alexandra Kaloyanides is a Postdoctoral Scholar at the Ho Center for Buddhist Studies at Stanford University. She researches Burmese religions and American religious history. Her book manuscript, “Objects of Conversion, Relics of Resistance,” examines the religious contestations, conversions, and transformations during the nineteenth-century American Baptist mission to Burma.

Voir : https://www.facebook.com/events/1771316929755778/

Buddhist Salvation Armies as Vanguards of the Sāsana: Sorcerer Societies in Twentieth-Century Burma

Thomas Patton, « Buddhist Salvation Armies as Vanguards of the Sāsana: Sorcerer Societies in Twentieth-Century Burma » in The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 75, no. 4 (nov. 2016)

Since the early twentieth century, groups of Burmese Buddhist sorcerers and their followers have taken on the duty of guarding the Buddha’s sāsana from colonial, ideological, and Islamic threats. Sāsana (broadly, the teachings of the Buddha and the institutions and practices that support them) and how it should be sustained in the face of its inevitable demise have been central concerns of these societies, expressed in both their textual and oral representations. To illustrate this tension between endurance and change, this article explores ideas of the life cycle of the sāsana and how ideas about its responsibility to wider communities of Burmese Buddhists became expressed through the intersection of sāsana and sorcery. Examining the ways these associations understood themselves to be protecting and propagating the sāsana through various means demonstrates how sāsana vitality gave their beliefs and actions a distinct collective and collectively ethical tone.

A télécharger sur : https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-asian-studies/article/div-classtitlebuddhist-salvation-armies-as-vanguards-of-the-span-classitalicssanaspan-sorcerer-societies-in-twentieth-century-burmadiv/C95DEB4DF28679334ED28078F97ED98A

 

Independent Journal of Burmese Scholarship, vol. 1, no. 1 (August 2016)

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Independent Journal of Burmese Scholarship, vol. 1, no. 1 (August 2016) – « Special Issue on Poverty »

The Independent Journal of Burmese Scholarship —is a new, open access, digital journal of humanities (history and literary criticism) and social sciences. It aims at fostering the development of vigorous, critical, and independent research of the highest quality on Burma by scholars both in Burma and abroad.

The collection of essays collected in this inaugural issue offer illustrations of the lived experiences of poor people in urban and rural areas across Burma’s diverse geography—landscapes that range from coastal wetlands to the mountainous periphery and dry interior.

A télécharger sur : http://journalofburmesescholarship.org/issues.html

Table of contents :

  • Introduction to the New Journal by James Scott
  • Introduction to the Special Issue on Poverty by Ardeth Thawnghmung
  • Small Scale Fishermen in Rakhine State by Saw Eh Htoo
  • Poverty and Migration from Burma: Within and Without Midi Z’s Films by Wen-Chin Chang
  • Poverty and Livelihood : a Study of the Socioeconomic Situations of the Bus Conductors on No. 3 Buses by Ye Hein Haung (en birman)
  • “Fragmented Sovereignty” over Property Institutions: Developmental Impacts on the Chin Hill Communities by Siusue Mark
  • Poverty and Health in Contemporary Burma by Dr Ne Lynn Zaw and Mollie Pepper
  • On the Frontier of Urbanization: Informal Settlements in Yangon, Myanmar by Eben I. Forbes