Archives par mot-clé : Architecture

A télécharger : Architects of Buddhist Leisure

A télécharger : Justin Thomas McDaniel, Architects of Buddhist Leisure : Socially Disengaged Buddhism in Asia’s Museums, Monuments, and Amusement Parks, University of Hawaii Press, 2016

Buddhism, often described as an austere religion that condemns desire, promotes denial, and idealizes the contemplative life, actually has a thriving leisure culture in Asia. Creative religious improvisations designed by Buddhists have been produced both within and outside of monasteries across the region—in Nepal, Japan, Korea, Macau, Hong Kong, Singapore, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Justin McDaniel looks at the growth of Asia’s culture of Buddhist leisure—what he calls “socially disengaged Buddhism”—through a study of architects responsible for monuments, museums, amusement parks, and other sites. In conversation with noted theorists of material and visual culture and anthropologists of art, McDaniel argues that such sites highlight the importance of public, leisure, and spectacle culture from a Buddhist perspective and illustrate how “secular” and “religious,” “public” and “private,” are in many ways false binaries. Moreover, places like Lek Wiriyaphan’s Sanctuary of Truth in Thailand, Suối Tiên Amusement Park in Saigon, and Shi Fa Zhao’s multilevel museum/ritual space/tea house in Singapore reflect a growing Buddhist ecumenism built through repetitive affective encounters instead of didactic sermons and sectarian developments. They present different Buddhist traditions, images, and aesthetic expressions as united but not uniform, collected but not concise: together they form a gathering, not a movement.

Despite the ingenuity of lay and ordained visionaries like Wiriyaphan and Zhao and their colleagues Kenzo Tange, Chan-soo Park, Tadao Ando, and others discussed in this book, creators of Buddhist leisure sites often face problems along the way. Parks and museums are complex adaptive systems that are changed and influenced by budgets, available materials, local and global economic conditions, and visitors. Architects must often compromise and settle at local optima, and no matter what they intend, their buildings will develop lives of their own. Provocative and theoretically innovative, Architects of Buddhist Leisure asks readers to question the very category of “religious” architecture. It challenges current methodological approaches in religious studies and speaks to a broad audience interested in modern art, architecture, religion, anthropology, and material culture.

A télécharger sur : http://oapen.org/search?identifier=626388

Sinitic Trends in Early Islamic Java (15th to 17th century)

Seated feline figures. Truc Phuong commune, Truc Ninh district. c. L 8 x H 15 cm, Nam Dinh museum, Nam Dinh Province. Late Lê dynasty. (Credit: H. Njoto)

Sinitic Trends in Early Islamic Java (15th to 17th century) by Hélène Njoto (Nalanda-Sriwijaya Center)

Note: This article is reproduced from the latest issue of NSC Highlights. For more, please see : https://goo.gl/XoyXfM

Java’s north coast is known to have had cosmopolitan and multi-religious towns where Muslim travellers and traders settled since the early 15th century. While there is scarce evidence of the presence of Muslims and foreigners in the early Islamic period, the accounts of past Muslim ruling figures, revered as holy men (wali), have persisted. These accounts have survived thanks to the fairly good conservation of the mausolea of these holy men, many of which are five to six centuries old. These mausolea, considered sacred (kramat), are visited every year by thousands of pilgrims from Java and other parts of the Malay world.

 These mausolea contain elements of a Sinitic (relating to Chinese culture) trend in early Islamic Java. Historical sources note the presence of ‘Chinese’ among the Muslims present on Java’s north coast in the 15th and 16th centuries. Local Javanese traditions and hagiographies also suggest that some of the most prominent holy men were of Chinese descent. Some are said to have come from Champa, the former Hindu-Buddhist kingdom of present-day coastal Vietnam (Manguin 2001).

 Nevertheless, the ‘sinitic’ origin of some of these holy men on the Javanese coast remains enigmatic since there is little material evidence apart from these mausolea remains. The richly decorated wooden panels that enclose these tombs on four sides, delicately sculpted, some in openwork or painted in red, are indeed vaguely reminiscent of a Sinitic culture. However, most motifs and stylisation, such as the lotus leaves in a pond, represented in a naturalistic way, had in fact already appeared during the Hindu-Buddhist period, possibly as the consequence of earlier Sinitic borrowings.

 However, the motif of the seated feline figure stands out. These feline figures, sculpted in wood or stone, were found in four religious sanctuaries such as in the mausolea of Sunan Drajat and Sunan Sendang Duwur. In these mausolea, they are represented in-the-round, in a seated hieratic position, bearded, with their maw wide open and their tongues pulled out (in Sunan Drajat). They have volutes motifs on the legs and a necklace or winged-like motif spreading from the scapula backwards. These feline figures suggest that these holy men had developed a taste for decorative features found in China and the Indo-Chinese peninsula of the same period.

Lire la suite sur : https://www.facebook.com/notes/nalanda-sriwijaya-centre/sinitic-trends-in-early-islamic-java-15th-to-17th-century-by-hélène-njoto/1368801939864852

Brutalism and Traditional Khmer Design Come Together in Phnom Penh’s Hiroshima House

Brutalism and Traditional Khmer Design Come Together in Phnom Penh’s Hiroshima House by Ben Valentine, 17/03/2017, Hyperallergic

Osamu Ishiyama’s structure exemplifies the surprising adaptability of humans in the face of dehumanizing events.

PHNOM PENH, Cambodia — During the 1994 Asian Games in Hiroshima, atomic bomb survivor Keiko Kunichika was inspired by a Cambodian athlete’s desire for his country to grow as Hiroshima had after the devastation of war. The Association for the Exchange Between Hiroshima Citizens and Cambodians was founded, and volunteers from Japan began building the Hiroshima House in Phnom Penh, brick by brick, from 1995 until its opening in 2007.

[…]

As a monument for peace, a site for children, and a building within one of Phnom Penh’s oldest and most important temple complexes, Wat Ounalom, the building itself is somewhat bizarre. From the outside, it’s an awkward, nearly cube-shaped five-story structure of progressively smaller cement and brick horizontal stripes. The weirdness culminates in a traditional Khmer roof plopped on top of the modern building. Surrounded by traditional Buddhist temple buildings, which are heavily ornate with highly circumscribed meanings, the Hiroshima House sticks out like a sore thumb.

Lire la suite sur : http://hyperallergic.com/364076/brutalism-and-traditional-khmer-design-come-together-in-phnom-penhs-hiroshima-house/